Tips for Writing Essay

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References According to the APA Style The APA style consists of rules and conventions for formatting term papers, journal articles, books, etc., in the behavioural and social sciences. This user guide explains how to cite references in APA style, both within the text of a paper and in a reference list, and gives examples of commonly used types of references. Reference Citations in the Text: • Single author: Use the author's last name, year. (Morse, 1996) OR Morse (1996) showed that... • Two authors: Use both authors' last names, separated by an ampersand if in parentheses. (Ringsven & Bond, 1996) OR In their study, Ringsven and Bond (1996) • Three to five authors: Use all authors' names and year, the first time the reference occurs; in subsequent citations, include only the first author followed by "et al." and the year. First citation: (Johnson, Brunn, & Platt, 2002) OR Johnson, Brunn and Platt (2002) Subsequent citations: (Johnson et al., 2002). Omit the year if the subsequent citation is in the same paragraph. • Six or more authors: Use only the first author followed by et al. and the year. (Arpin et al., 2001) OR Arpin et al. (2001) If two references with the same year shorten to the same form, cite the name of the first authors and as many of the subsequent authors as necessary to distinguish the two references, followed by a comma and et al. • Groups as authors: Corporation, association, and government names are given in full in the first citation, and may be abbreviated thereafter if the name is long. (The Michener Institute, 2002) OR The Michener Institute (2002) reported that... • Personal communication used as a citation should be avoided, unless it provides essential information not available from a public source. Do not include it in the reference list; instead cite the last name and initials of the person and date of communication in

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