Specific phobias: excessive, unrealistic fear of a specific object or situation. Sufferers of this avoid the object or situation or have intense distress while encountering it. xxix. Social phobia/social anxiety disorder: severe, persistent, and irrational fear of negative evaluation by others. xxx.
Question 1 There are numerous potential affects due to difficulties with continence in relation to the individuals' self esteem, health and day to day activities; these include: o Low mood stemmed from lack of dignity and privacy. o Social isolation and embarrassment. o Individual lives in fear of being unable to manage their needs. o Deterioration to their health caused by dehydration due to wanting to prevent incontinence or wanting to reduce mobilising to facilitate needs. o Moisture damage to the skin can be caused to the individual due to being unable to cope with or without aids or support.
Stress also increases the heart rate and can lead to the increase of blood pressure, thus Hypertension and can lead to Coronary Heart Disease (CHD). Although this disease can be caused by the indirect effects. Indirect effects of stress are associated with the bad habits that stress causes us to take part in, these included smoking, poor diet and alcohol abuse. These poor habits can thus lead to ill-effects on one’s health. These issues are more related to chronic stress rather than acute stress and it occurs for a long period, thus affecting health for a longer period.
Signs of stress might include lack of sleep, decreased immunity, high blood pressure, headache, back pain, heart palpitations, increased smoking, and abuse of drugs or alcohol, anxiety, sadness, and depression. Stress management can include physical activities and relaxation techniques. (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2009). Stressors can lead to the stress response system, best known as “the fight or flight response”. This is the body’s response to a threat or danger.
Stress comes from any situation in which we feel frustrated, angry or anxious. Anxiety, on the other hand, comes from apprehension or fear. Stress and Anxiety, in a nutshell, stem from our bodies reaction to fear or change. Those who suffer from stress can understand their condition and find resolution in the mediums of therapy or changing certain aspects to their daily lives. Anxiety on the other hand is not something that can be treated easily as there is the potential to have larger psychological or physicals reasons for its manifestation.
When a person with a phobia encounters the stimulus which causes their fear they experience extreme anxiety and will show avoidance behaviour. There are various elements that make up the fear response of phobia such as, cognitive element, where the expectation of harm about to happen, the perception of danger and threat. There is also the biological element which is the body’s emergency reaction to danger (‘fight or flight’ response) release of adrenaline leading to increased heart rate, breathing rate, blood pressure, sweating, etc. There is also the emotional element which is the feeling of dread, terror and panic. The final element is the behavioural one, involving fleeing, avoidance behaviour or freezing.
Lack of stress, termed as ‘distress’ can cause lack of motivation and boredom, which can have a negative effect on life and can lead to many other problems such as alcohol or drug abuse. On the other hand too much stress can have a bad impact on a person’s health, leading to headaches, high blood pressure it can also affect the immune system and in extreme cases possibly stroke and heart disease. Anxiety caused from stress can make a person feel irritable and angry, or they may become subdued this may lead to negative relationships at home or at work. It is thought that too much stress can easily lead to depression which can then have an impact on the way a person perceives stressful situations, thus having more stress to cope with In primary appraisal it is said that our first reaction is
Physiological ‘Stress’, marked by the secretion of glucocorticoid hormones and often referred as the negative consequence of an animal’s failure to cope with changing environment, in certain circumstances, is a need in ensuring survival and allowing adaptation to such change (Wielebnowski et al. 2002; Moberg 2000; Mostl and Palme, 2002; Menargues et. al. 2008). But if it persists for a prolonged duration, the continuous action of high concentration of Glucocorticoid on liver, muscle and adipose tissues, loses it adaptive value, adversely impacts the muscle and bone impairing the endocrine and immune function, degrading the body mass, individual fitness and causing reproductive failure resulting the long-term behavioural changes as supported by the Cort-fitness hypothesis (Munck et al.
stress and its effects on the body This essay will discuss stress and the effect it has on our body, this will include General adaptation syndrome, Autonomic nervous system, and how major life changes cause stress in everyday life. Stress is very difficult to define it is the feeling of being overburdened; under pressure and so anxious that you cannot cope with everything in your life. The outside pressures on you start to interfere with the balance within your body resulting in illness, abnormal behaviour and even death. Factors that cause stress are called stressors for example a relationship breakdown or money problems, many of them are major conflicts or changes but some are everyday activities. The nervous system is different from any of the other systems within the body as it is the monitor of stress.
Stress caused by| | |work can lead to headaches, high blood pressure, anxiety, loss of appetite, sleep deprivation, and many | | |other things. All of these symptoms have a direct toll on our overall health. When these symptoms become | | |chronic they wear down our immune systems and we can become sick. This in turn affects our performance | | |at work, which again causes stress. It is a viscous cycle if stress caused from work is not managed | | |properly.