Three Contrasting Techniques of Improvisation; Using Examples from the Three Jazz Set Works You Have Studies.

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Briefly describe three contrasting techniques of improvisation; using examples from the three jazz set works you have studies. One highly common technique of improvisation is chromatic alteration throughout solos where notes outside of the chord are used in order to extend the harmony and add tensions to the chords. For example blues notes are used in all three set works. The use of the flattened 3rd and 7th are particularly noticeable in the clarinet counter melody in the 4th chorus of Hotter Than That. There are also blues inflections in the vocal and guitar duet where the flat 3rd is emphasised by bending the notes at the beginning of phrases. The use of blues notes are very common in the style due to the heavy blues influence in New Orleans Jazz. Chromaticism is also featured in Duke Ellington’s Koko, again blues notes are used, for example in bar 8 of Nantons trombone solo he uses a fragment of the blues scale making use of the flattened 5th, 3rd and 7th. Another example of Chromaticism in Koko is in the double bass solos where Blanton plays descending chromatic phrases. The use of chromatic notes adds to the mood created by the minor blues chord progression. In Boplicity the blues influences are less strong although chromatic passages are still used throughout for example in Davis’ chromatic semiquaver passage during the trumpet solo. Another technique of improvisation used within the set works is Enclosure. This is where the soloist sets up the target pitch by playing a semitone above the target note, followed by a semitone below before finally resolving in the target pitch. For example in bar 27 of the trumpet solo in Hotter Than That Armstrong plays an Ab followed by an F# before landing on the G, which is the 5th of the chord on the first beat of bar 28. This emphasises the chord tones but also adds tensions by delaying the resolution and the

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