Thin Layer Chromatography Introduction (Adapted from Mohrig, 1st ed., pp. 151-162.) Chromatography is a sophisticated method of separating mixtures of two or more compounds. The separation is accomplished by the distribution of the mixture between two phases: one that is stationary and one that is moving. Chromatography works on the principle that different compounds will have different solubilities and adsorption to the two phases between which they are to be partitioned.
Magic marker inks are often mixtures of several compounds. Paper chromatography is a common method of separating various components of a mixture. After separation, you can observe the different colors that make up a particular color of magic marker ink. You can also calculate a ratio Rf, which compares how far each compound traveled to how far each solvent (substance that dissolves another substance) traveled during the experiment. Rf = Ds/Df Ds = Distance traveled by the compound Df = Distance traveled by the solvent Materials: coffee filter, tape, isopropyl alcohol (rubbing alcohol), water, 3 different color magic markers (not permanent); 3 identical tall, narrow drinking glasses; metric ruler, 3 pencils Pre-lab Questions: List one extensive and one intensive property of marker ink.
One may be for diarrhea while the other one for migraine. The label on the package of the drug usually tells us what they are and are made of. One can identify the difference of the drugs using chromatography; the collective term for a set of laboratory techniques for the separation of mixtures. The various components of the mixture travel at different speeds, causing them to separate.  Chromatography was first employed by Russian scientist Mikhail Tsvet in 1900.
The volumetric flask helps find the standard solution (an accurate reading of the volume of a solution). This experiment focuses more on acid and base titrations. After adding an acid, a base is slowly added to consume all of the acid available. This is known as the equivalence point. For acid/base titrations, a color change from an indicator is reached.
The results were Acetone which boiled at 56 degrees and Toluene which boiled at 111 degrees. Introduction/background Distillation is a very know method used to separate liquids based of their characteristics and properties. In order to separate mixtures, heat is applied to the liquids, which have different boiling points, to force them into a gas phase. After, the gas is collected and converted back into a liquid phase; doing this process over multiple times help increases the purity of the product. Or vice-versa the process can be used to convert gases into liquids by changing the pressure or temperatures.
Effects of Phototaxis and Hydrotaxis on Armadillidium vulgare’s Abstract The experiment was devised in order to identify and examine the effects of phototaxis and hydrotaxis in Aramadillidium vulgare. Groups of A. vulgare were placed in a pair of connected Petri dishes. One side was lit while the other side was covered with a black cloth. They were observed for a certain period of time in order to record any obvious taxis that occurred. After the taxis were observed for the light and dark, the isopods were observed in dry and wet situations in which the isopod’s activity was recorded.
TITLE OF THE EXPERIMENT: Separation and Purification Chemical separation of a mixture of acidic (benzoic acid), basic (p-bromoaniline) and neutral (naphthalene) compounds. PART A Introduction: Most of the reactions in synthesis of organic compounds give products that are usually impure [1+2]. Two of the most common reasons that impurity appears in organic synthesis are i) contamination with the reactants due to incomplete reactions during the preparation or ii) the presence of other compounds in alternative competing reactions. So a process with various techniques called purification is carried out to the organic compounds to restrict the influence of impurities and make them able to be used further in the lab or in industry . Purification process can be applied either in starting materials (reactants) or the final material (product) but to avoid though any initial imperfections, purification of the final material is more preferable .
ABSTRACT Thin layer chromatography (TLC) is a chromatographic technique used to separate the components of a mixture using a thin stationary phase supported by an inert backing. It may be performed on the analytical scale as a means of monitoring the progress of a reaction, or on the preparative scale to purify small amounts of a compound. TLC is an analytical tool widely used because of its simplicity, relative low cost, high sensitivity, and speed of separation.TLC functions on the same principle as all chromatography, which is, a compound will have different affinities for the mobile and stationary phases, and this affects the speed at which it migrates. The goal of TLC is to obtain well defined, well separated .This paper presents a review of the literature concerning the use of thin layer chromatography to separate the active ingredients of the parsley leaves into its different pigments .The silica gel remains the most important adsorbent for TLC separation.The migration of the different pigments is by capillary forces. Components that are more strongly attracted to the sorbent layer will travel a shorter distance, while components that are more soluble in the mobile phase will travel a longer distance from the origin.To identify possible pigments that are found in Robertson Parsley dry leaves, Thin layer chromatography was perfomed using a solid silica gel plate and a mixture of acetone, chloroform and di ethyl ether in the ratio 1:1:3.
Various chemical tests can be used to detect the presence of each of these molecules. Most of the tests involve a color change visible to the eye. If a color change is observed, the test is considered positive. If the color change is not observed, the test is negative, indicating that a particular molecule is not present. In all the chemical tests we will be performing, we will also be using two controls.