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1 REVIEW OF LITERATURE Courtney Brez Effects of Hospitalization Hospitalization is one of the most stressful events that children and adults can experience. Children and adults reactions to hospitalization, such as anxiety, fear, withdrawal, depression, regression and defiance, can be more severe than their reactions to the illness (Froehlich, 1984). The most common concerns of a hospitalized child are (a) anxiety due to separation from family and friends, (b) fear of the unfamiliar, (c) uncertainty about hospital rules and expectations, (d) prior perception of hospitalization, (e) fear of body mutilation or death, (f) fear of pain and discomfort, (g) thoughts of hospitalization as punishment, (h) loss of emotional and physical control, (i) other’s perception of physical changes, (j) loss of independence and identity, and (k) fear of rejection (Froehlich, 1996). Most of all, the hospital is an unfamiliar environment that disrupts the routine of daily living. Other stressful factors of hospitalization may include frequent restrictions of activities and forced dependence on others which can lead to feelings of vulnerability, and developmental regression. In addition, anxiety aroused by diagnostic, radiological, or other presurgical screening procedures can give rise to fear of pain, fear of mutilation, and fear of death. When hospitalized, children and adults must make an emotional adjustment to the illness (Brodsky, 1989). Hospitalization is a serious change that can affect a child’s emotional and developmental needs and adult’s emotional and physical needs. Publications regarding short-term and long-term effects of hospitalization state that as many as 30% of 2 hospitalized children experience emotional or behavioral problems (Robb, 1999). One specific type of illness is kidney disease. Effects of Hemodialysis Kidney disease and its complications affect
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