The main objectives of the lab study were to determine the heat transfer rate, the logarithmic mean temperature difference and overall heat transfer coefficient. Other objectives included determining the surface heat transfer coefficient inside and outside the tube and the effect of fluid velocity on these. Lastly the final objective was to compare the differences between concurrent and counter current flow in a heat exchanger. The apparatus used to carry out this lab study was a concentric tube heat exchanger. The concentric tube heat exchanger consists of a series of pipes or tubes in which fluids enter.
Abstract— Heat pipe is the apparatus which is very much in talk as a heat transfer device in the recent scenario of heat transmission efficiently. Heat pipe applies the principle of evaporation and condensation of fluid to transfer heat. Heat pipe has wide range of applications in aerospace, electronics packaging, building thermal management, material processing, nuclear, thermo-electro-mechanical device, heat pipe, heat exchanger and thermo siphon designers and manufacturers; mechanical, electrical and civil engineering students. This review highlights the importance of heat pipes in the current market. Keywords— Evaporation and condensation, electronics packaging, building thermal management I.
1.What is thermochemistry and how is it useful? How can thermochemistry be applied in the real world? Thermochemistry is the branch of thermodynamics that focuses on th heat involved in a chemical and physical change. A reaction may release or absorb energy. It is useful at predicting reactant and product quantities through a reaction.
We also can produce diesel and gasoline for our nation’s income. The fuels produced by the coal liquefaction can be used to power vehicles, heat homes and run factories and many more. There are two main stages in the coal liquefaction process. Coal gasification and gas to liquid (GTL). In the coal gasification process the air and stream are added to the raw coals then heat it to hundred degrees Fahrenheit.
At the higher temperature the fluid is cooled to normal temperature (this is usually a condenser). The fluid then experiences a drop in pressure which makes it go cold (this is usually a throttle valve) and able to absorb heat at a cold temperature. The cycle is then repeated. Various fluids or refrigerants are used in the reversed thermodynamic cycle. Refrigerants such as air, water and carbon dioxide are used but most refrigerants are those designed for vapour compression cycles.
The study of specific heat falls under the category of Thermochemistry which is further divided into the category of Calorimetry. An instrument called a calorimeter is used to measure specific heat. A piece of metal is placed in a container of water. This is then boiled. The piece of metal is then taken out of the boiling water and placed in a calorimeter which contains room temperature water.
Next we will chart the data and form two different plots. The first plot will be actual temperature as a function of time. The second chart will be excess temperature as a function of time. On the second chart I will place an exponential trendline showing the equation of the line. Using this equation I can determine the cooling time constant for the block of steel.
Reactive distillation is attractive in those systems where certain chemical and phase equilibrium conditions exist because there are many types of reactions, there are many types of reactive distillation columns. In this section, the ideal classical situation is described, which will serve to outline the basics of reactive distillation. Consider the system in which the chemical reaction involves two reactants (A and B) producing two products (C and D). The reaction takes place in the liquid phase and is reversible. quality of the distillate is controlled using the temperature control.
2. INTRODUCTION A phase diagram in materials science is a type of chart used to show conditions at which thermodynamically distinct phases can occur at equilibrium. Such diagrams are also called equilibrium or constitutional diagrams. It is determined experimentally by recording cooling rates over a range of compositions. We will use these diagrams to understand and predict the alloy microstructure obtained at a given composition.
Carburetor vs Fuel Injection A comparative/ contrast essay by Tony Mizzell In the “automotive performance” industry a question that is often asked is what are the benefits vs downfalls, when it comes to building an engine that uses a carburetor or fuel injection. They both have good as well as bad points. I am going to describe the ways that each provide fuel in an automobile engine. The Carburetor supplies fuel to the gasoline engine by means of vacuum gravity and a manual lever and diaphragm type pump. The fuel is sent under low pressure via a low volume low pressure pump, either electric or mechanical.