Theories of Human Motivation Essay

975 WordsMar 8, 20154 Pages
Theories of Human Motivation Theory 1: Money as a Motivator This theory states that all workers are motivated primarily by the need for money; so if you want to get the most out of your workforce, you pay them more. This has particular effectiveness in areas where payment is directly linked to the accomplishment of objectives. This theory is prevalent in many businesses in the form of performance-related pay, incentives, bonuses and promotion schemes. While few would argue that it does not have some validity (indeed it is the driver behind most sales forces the world over), it is not an all-encompassing theory. It doesn't really address the sometimes complex reasons why people are motivated by money. And it excludes people who are not driven primarily for money. Theory 2: The Hierarchy of Needs This theory is probably the best-known motivation theory. It was coined by Abraham Maslow during the 1940s and 1950s. In essence, it states that our motivations are dictated primarily by the circumstances we find ourselves in, and that certain 'lower' needs need to be satisfied before we are motivated towards 'higher' accomplishments. Maslow divided these objectives into five distinct stages, starting at physiological needs and ending at self-actualisation needs. In practice, the theory has its application in ensuring that the workforce have sufficiently comfortable surroundings and working conditions in order for them to be free to do their best for their company. Theory 3: Theory X and Theory Y In 1960, Douglas McGregor advanced the idea that managers had a major part in motivating staff. He essentially divided managers into two categories – Managers who believe that their staff are lazy and will do as little as they can get away with; and managers who believe that their people really want to do their best in their work. The former managers believe that staff will do things

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