Theories of Human Development

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Theories of Human Development 1. Which theories emphasize individual conscious organization of experience? Unconscious urges? Observable behavior? The interaction of nature versus nurture? The sociocultural and cognitive theories best emphasize individual conscious organization of experience. Sociocultural theories involve active learning and an individual must interact with society and mentors. There is a conscious effort on the individual’s part to learn and use their experiences to make life decisions. Cognitive development requires an individual to analyze their experiences and properly form concepts. There is a conscious effort and motivation in this theory. Freud describes unconscious urges in his psychoanalytic theory and claims there is a constant battle or obsession with unconscious impulses and sexual impulses. Observable behavior is emphasized in Albert Bandura’s social learning theory. Bandura believed that humans are able to learn through modeling. Modeling is an observational behavior and it is not purely imitation (Berger, 2011). Modeling allows children especially, to acquire new responses through observing others' behavior. A social model can be a parent, sibling, friend, or teacher, but particularly in childhood a model is someone of authority or higher status. The interaction of nature and nurture is clearly described in social learning theories. A behavior is observed and learned, and the individual responds to their environment using learned behaviors and their own judgment on the situation. 2. Which theories emphasize the impact of early experience on development? Erik Erikson’s psychosocial theory consists of eight stages and describes the impact of early experiences and experiences over the lifespan from childhood to adulthood (Cherry, 2013). Each stage is characterized by a psychosocial crisis of two
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