• Freud (Psychoanalytic):- He believed that the personality develops through a series of stages. The idea that early experiences affect adult life has importance for anyone caring for a child. He proposed that individuals are driven by motives and emotions of which they are largely unaware. He believed that we shaped by early experiences in life. Freudian thinking is deeply embedded in our culture and constantly influences our view of human nature, but his ideas are now widely
Considering the work of key pioneers and current experts with links to child development theory. There are many theories about how children learn and develop. This area of study is called developmental psychology which covers subjects such as cognitive, language and emotional development. The research methods are based heavily on the on going assessments carried out by observing children over a period of time. Assessment is part of the process of understanding what children know, understand and can do so that future teaching steps can be appropriately planned.
The Psychodynamic Perspective The school of psychodynamics focuses on the interplay of the mental forces. It is said that humans have can have unconscious motives that underlie their true intentions. It is also said that the foundations of what was discovered rests on the evidence that people could be aware of their subconscious motivations while processing the things that affect their conscious thoughts that are related to their feelings, behaviors and intentions. Scientific studies show that psychodynamic perspective can reveal as to why a person’s actions are brought on by thoughts and feelings that would cause a reaction or a response in different situations. This school of study ultimately depends on the methods of the case studies that are performed to provide the necessary information that will clearly show them the evidence based on motivations.
• Evaluate different parenting styles and their influence on development during infancy and early childhood. Include which parenting style you feel is most effective and why. • Discuss early childhood education and its influence on cognitive development. • Include at least two references. • Format your paper to APA standards.
These interactions allow individuals to make sense of the world, shaping ideas and beliefs and providing the opportunity to use language to express thoughts. Figure 4.S depicts a typical experience where the practitioner supports children to express their ideas. Bruner suggested that meaning making included not only how children make sense of the world but also how they understand themselves. He referred to both constructing Interactionist theory. meaning and processing of information as a way of understanding development.
Theories of development. Jean Piaget (1896 – 1980) – Cognitive Piaget's theory was that children construct or build up their thoughts according to their experiences of the world around them. The child's conclusions or thoughts are known as 'schema' (building blocks of knowledge). The child will adapt their schema when new information is received. As a child develops, so does their thinking.
The major areas of development include biological, cognitive and social and emotional development. Both of these psychologists were concerned with the study of understanding the area of cognitive development specifically in children and were considered to be constructivists. Constructivism is the theory in which “learners actively construct their own knowledge based upon the things they know now and have known in the past” (TFL resources, 2006). This essay will seek to compare and contrast the theories of psychologists Piaget and Vygotsky and will critically look at their theories to judge which aspects are appropriate for the long term. Jean Piaget focused his research on studying children and observing their thought processes.
Her approach to early education was developed around schemas. She believed “a pattern of repeated actions. Clusters of schemas developed into later concepts” Another key element of Tina Bruce Theory is ‘free flow’ play. She believed children learn better from first hand experiences, developing rules and props, freely chosen activity, rehearsing recent learning or celebrating learning, imagining the future, pretending and co-ordinated ideas and feelings. Tina Bruce’s theory was put into practice with the twelve features of play, some of these are: • Children make up their own rules while they play.
Structuralism was developed by a man named Edward Titchener who was a student of Wilhem Wundt. Titchener was extremely interested in learning about the structure of the consciousness. He believed in the use of experimentation for the science of psychology (Kowalski & Westen, 2009). The second school of thought, functionalism, along with structuralism was the two schools of thought which were dominant in the beginning of psychology (Kowalski & Westen, 2009). Functionalism studied the psychological processes which enable individuals to be able to adapt to their environments; each psychological process has an important role which is their main point of focus.
These big ideas can be categorized under social thinking, social influence, or social relations. The idea that we construct our social reality falls under social thinking, it describes the natural human urge to explain behavior, by attempting to attribute it to a cause, in order to make it seem orderly, predictable, and controllable (Myers, 2010). According to social psychology our social intuitions are powerful and sometimes perilous, suggesting that the human ability to understand something immediately, molds or influences behavior because it also shapes fears, attitudes, impressions, and relationships (Myers, 2010). It is also believed that social influences shape behavior as does behavior shape social influences. Myers (2010) provides an example as to how behavior is shaped by social influences making humans social creatures, “We speak and think in words we learned from others (Social psychology, p. 7).