Numerous theoretical models illustrate the importance of the treatment process for abnormal psychology. The psychosocial model relates to internal conflicts as between the conscious and unconscious mind as the individual responds to environmental stimuli. This aspect model focuses on relationships, social status, memories, and peer group environments (Hansell & Damour, 2008). Contributions of physical and biochemical functions relates to the biological or medical model and how the human body reacts and influences mental illness and dysfunctions. The focus of this model concerns the brain and functions and abnormal behaviors and unobservable deviant thought processes (Hansell & Damour, 2008).
Another assumption is that certain regions of the brain determine certain behaviors. The cerebral cortex has been found to affect our thinking and the prefrontal cortex is associated with mood and emotions. It has been supported by PET scans and MRI scans which have been used to objectively measure the changes in neuronal activity of the brain before and after psychosurgery. 1b) Describe Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome (8 marks) Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) explains the body’s ability to cope with a particular stressor. ‘Stress’ refers to the psychological and physiological responses which occur when we perceive a threat and don’t have the resources to cope with it.
Several perspectives have an explanation for the causes of abnormal behavior. These perspectives include medical perspectives, psychodynamic perspectives, behavioral perspectives, cognitive perspectives, and social-cultural perspectives. The medical perspectives focus on the biological and physiological factors. The psychodynamic perspective focuses on the idea that the causes of abnormal behaviors are a consequence of unresolved anxiety and unconscious conflicts. The behavioral perspective indicates that the reasoning for abnormal behavior is because there is inadequate learning and conditioning.
In terms of biochemistry, chemical imbalances in the brain may be involved in certain mental illnesses. Neurotransmitters, for example, play a very important part in behaviour – one theory links depression to low levels of the neurotransmitters serotonin and noradrenaline. However, the relationship between neurotransmitters and depression is very complex and therefore, more research is needed to discover the exact link between this and the disorder. People suffering from depression, also often have high levels of the hormone cortisol. Cortisol is sometimes referred to as a ‘stress hormone’ because it is produced in times of stress.
1.2 Analyse the potential effects of barriers to equality and inclusion in own area of responsibility The potential effects that the residents will experience in this care setting are prejudice and discrimination. Prejudice happens when society lacks education and the understanding of different cultures and how society looks at it. Prejudice begins by making assumptions of a certain client group i.e. people with learning disability and mental health issues are put into a certain box. Another example would be if an adult had a disability like epilepsy, and an adult who has schizophrenia may be thought to be a serial killer, these types of
Historical Perspectives of Abnormal Psychology Abnormal psychology is defined as the study of psychological characteristics that often deviate outside of the norm (Cherry, 2005). This perspective generally encompasses an array of perspectives ranging from disorders to altered mental patterns that affect the normal functioning of an individual as part of society. Typically, this type of impairment is accompanied by behavior, either disruptive or of a distorted nature. There are several approaches used in abnormal psychology in addition, it is important to examine the origin of abnormal psychology in an effort to rationalize the evolution of this scientific discipline (Cherry, 2005). To understand the basis of abnormal psychology, it is essential to recognize that the individuals who make up these categories fall very far at the other end of the normal spectrum.
Abnormal behavior and conditions vary by tradition to tradition and person to person. Nowadays, abnormal functioning is typically connected to several types of psychological illness (Frude, 1998). Abnormal psychology comprises of studying individuals who cannot adjust and act usually below situations that are believed to be typical. This could generally happen due to heredity, group connections, physical conditioning, knowledge and logic (Frude, 1998). Analyzing the start of abnormal psychology, for thousands of year’s individuals has been trying to comprehend and modify what is apparent as abnormal behavior.
‘Human behavior and performance are the result of multiple influences.’ Examine and assess this assertion, drawing on examples from Chapters 1, 6 and 7 of Discovering Psychology. How a human behaves and performs is influenced by a variety of internal and external influences. This essay will outline and assess influences that are related to the formation of language, personality and friendship. This will be achieved by evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of evidence collated from studies and experiments. This essay will aim to conclude that the theory of influences does affect human behavior and performance.
Perspectives of Abnormal Psychology Ann Bacon Psy/410 Abnormal Psychology October 24, 2011 Kristi Lane University of Phoenix Perspectives of Abnormal Psychology What is abnormal psychology? Abnormal psychology is the branch of psychology that deals with behaviors that are not considered normal as well as psychological phenomena such as dreams and altered mental states, which have not been explained. The goal of this branch of psychology is to understand abnormal behavior as well as to determine how and if the behavior needs to be addressed and to develop a treatment plan that will help individuals. This branch of psychology also recognizes that there are many influences such as environmental influences on psychological development. The goal of many mental health professionals is not to force an individual to achieve normality but to help individuals who struggle with mental and emotional disorders to achieve fulfilling and active lives.
According to Damour and Hansell (2008), these criteria are (a) seek help, (b) irrationality or dangerousness, (c) deviance, (d) emotional distress, and (e) significant impairment (p. 10). The first three are useful from a biological point of view, whereas the last two have a more scientific basis. For example, a person may seek help if physical changes occur as a result of depression such as weight loss. However, the emotional distress of depression or the impairment to the individual’s personality is measurable; therefore making the factors helpful in defining the scientific side of abnormal behavior. The history of abnormal behavior dates back to Before Christ (BC).