John Hobson, an English economist, saw imperialism as inevitable, for powers of production outpace consumption resulting in more profit for the mother country (doc 2). The United States was involved in imperialism due to the Monroe Doctrine of 1823, which made the western hemisphere an American protectorate and their victory in the Spanish-American War making them a Pacific power. Both Europe and America believed imperialism could bring them economic power and capacity. Imperialism was not strictly confined to economics; it also included the political aims of unique states. John Hobson deemed demand for foreign markets for manufacturers and investments was responsible for the adoption of Imperialism as a political policy (doc 2).
Supporting Sentence A: During the 1840s and 1890s manifest destiny and International Darwinism were used to warrant the expansionist movements of that time. Supporting Sentence B: The expansionist also used the population growth and the close of the frontier to support their intentions on expanding and conquering new territories. Supporting Sentence C: The movement believed that expansion would lead to economic advantages such as trade with Asia from California and trade with new colonies helping business Supporting Sentence D: Another argument expansionist used was that they wanted to prevent other countries from gaining more territories and they also felt the need to rival with the other imperialist countries. Topic Sentence #2: Opponents of expansion in the 1840s didn’t oppose new lands, but opposed the possible spread of slavery in the new territories. Supporting Sentence A: One rationale used to back up the opposition of expansion was that slavery was extensively used by Texas settles and that it was the major source of conflict with Mexico.
Throughout the 19th century, American relations with China were restricted to a small but profitable trade a. The British, in competition with France, Germany, and Russia, took advantage of the crumbling Manchu dynasty to force treaties on China, creating “treaty ports” and granting exclusive trading privileges in various parts of the country. b. American attitudes toward the Chinese people reflected this confusion of motives. 2. The annexation of Hawaii and Philippines in 1898 and 1899 convinced Secretary of State Hay that the US should have announced a China policy.
Many intellectuals during the Enlightenment explored new ideas in political economy; Adam Smith in his 1776 An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations was one of the most influential figures for the Americans. Smith admitted the mercantile system worked, yet criticized its principles. Expounding a doctrine of individualism, Smith was one of many voices stating that the economy, like the individual, should be free from detailed regulation from the state. Economic, as well as individual, self-interest and its outcome in the market should be allowed to function without state regulation. Although it was indeed approved by the First Continental Congress, the practice of mercantilism was replaced with a Smith-oriented form of liberalism in post-Revolutionary
The annexation of the Philippines may have seemed like a good idea to some people in 1898 after the United States won the Spanish-American war, but to others it wasn’t. Anti-imperialists such as Andrew Carnegie, Mark Twain and ex-President Grover Cleveland believed that imperializing the Philippines would only lead to the U.S. becoming an empire. They argued that the Filipinos are their own people and that America should not govern them. In October of 1899, an anti-imperialist platform was published. One person stated “We earnestly condemn the policy of the present national administration in the Philippines.” These people really do not like the fact that the U.S. government is trying to rule over another country.
American Imperialism in the Nineteenth Century Imperialism was a highly controversial subject in the Nineteenth century. Many people opposed the fact while others wanted to hit it full force. Imperialism is the acquisition of control over the government and the economy of another nation, usually by conquest [ (Davidson, 2008) ]. The United State became an imperialistic world power in the late nineteenth century by gaining control over the Hawaiian Islands and, after the Spanish American War, Guam, the Philippines, Cuba, and Puerto Rico [ (Davidson, 2008) ]. With America wanting to be a power house country, they became just that when they gained control over these countries.
His efforts to improve U.S. status and influence won him the hatred of many anti-imperialist groups. (81) In 1904, when the Dominican Republic was deeply in debt to European bond holders Roosevelt created a new U.S. policy (88). The policy stated the United States could intervene in conflicts between European countries and Latin American countries to enforce legitimate claims of the European powers, rather than having the Europeans press their claims directly (88). The President claimed that the United States had direct interest and the obligation to impose order in the affairs of Latin American countries.
However, by the time of his graduation, Sun believed that whilst the Manchu dynasty still existed, China would remain corrupt and backwards. His experiences abroad shaped his political ideas as at the beginning of the 20th century, the West were advancing and modernising their countries quicker than Sun’s own country of China. He toured Europe and America in hope to raise funds for the “Save China League” and made attempts to start a revolution against the Qing for example, the unsuccessful uprising in Canton, 1895. Sun worked hard travelling around to different countries, gaining more foreign funds and support. Sun Yatsen influenced the Chinese with his Three Principles – Nationalism, Democracy and Socialism and later in 1905; he formed the United League which was a revolutionary
The United States forcefully omitted their foreign rights and enforced American values upon the islanders. The United States successfully imperialized foreign islands without consequence due to the American public’s ideals of religion, manifest destiny, and American values. The American imperialism of both Pacific and Atlantic islands was favored by a majority of the American public because of their shared religion of Christianity. The American public believed it was God’s will that the United States shall become a superpower to spread the word of Jesus Christ. According to Reverend Josiah Strong, a prominent Protestant clergyman,” It seems to me that God, with infinite wisdom and skill, is training the Anglo-Saxon race, the purest Christianity, the highest civilization in which will
The Japanese originally developed an interest in trading with the Europeans, but the Jesuit missionaries who followed the traders arose hesitation that ultimately affected their decision to succumb to Western influences in the sense of preserving their beliefs and cultures. The Jesuits main goal was converting Japanese to their religion, which the Japanese did not approve of. In China, the Jesuits argued with the emperor over the conversion of Chinese people to their foreign religion, which resulted in the extrication of the Jesuits and their European counterparts from Chinese society. In an attempt to preserve their ways of life, China and Japan endured a long period of isolationism. After the overthrow of the shogunate and the beginning of the Meiji restoration, Japan ended their policy of isolationism because they quickly came to the realization that in order to fully ensure its future and prosperity, they had to modernize, which meant establishing alliances with the West.