This religious schism meant that the Muslims were often much more willing to ally against one another then with each other; for example by 1098 the Crusaders held an alliance with Egypt against the Turks. It also meant that Islam had no counter against the notion of ‘crusade’, a jihad was impossible with such disunity. When we combine their effect in the Crusader states in the future such as in 1187 we find this significant. This disunity was not helped by the power vacuum at the time, 1054 was often described by historians “as the year of deaths of sultans and caliphs”, such was the disunity that in
For instance the invasion of Afghanistan in 2001after the September 11 attacks is a good example of narrow perception. The United States wanted to duplicate its two hundred year old democracy at home, and transfer it to Afghan society. The results were and continue to be disastrous. In comparison to the United States, 96 percent of Afghans are uneducated. By any measure, democracy is a process and takes many years to develop by the willingness of the society, not by forcing it upon society.
Conflict and Violence (a content-building exercise) Essential questions (add to this list as you do further research and reading) 1) Why do countries go to war? (reasons could include historical, economic, political, religious and moral among others) Reasons: A)Territory Sino-Indian War (1962) The Sino-Indian War Began: October 20, 1962 TheSino-Indian War Ended: November 21, 1962 B) Political and ideological: The Cold War (1945–1963) The global superpower stand-off that brought the world to the brink of destruction. After WW2, each commanded powerful military forces; each espoused globally expansive ideologies; each feared and distrusted the other. The Chinese Civil War (1927 – 1949/1950) was a civil war fought between the Kuomintang (KMT or Chinese Nationalist Party), the governing party of the Republic of China, and the Communist Party of China (CPC) (also known as CCP - Chinese Communist Party), for the control of China which eventually led to China's division into two Chinas, Republic of China (ROC) and People's Republic of China (PRC). The war began in April 1927, amidst the Northern Expedition, and essentially ended when major active battles ceased in 1949-1950.
What was the impact of foreign intervention in the Spanish Civil War ? Although Spain remained neutral during the First World War, the country was not politically united whatsoever. This political division of many years finally led to a civil war outbreak after the victory of the left in the 1936 elections. However, both fighting sides, the Republicans and the Nationalists, were practically squarely matched; the common theory was that “the side which had arms would win”1 the war. Therefore it is clear that a crucial factor in this battle was the intervention, or non-intervention, of foreign powers.
Consociationalism worked for several decades in Lebanon, prior to the outbreak of the civil war in 1975. This can be attributed to the fulfillment of prerequisites to effective power-sharing as outlined by Arend Liphart. In this paper, I will demonstrate that Lebanon’s small geographic size, its multi-party system, its multi-axis balance of power between the three disparate groups and external threats were the prerequisites required for, and the reasons for the demise of consociationalism in Lebanon prior to 1975. Consociationalism is taken from the overarching concept of pluralism, and, if effective, is defined by scholar Richard Hrair Dekmejian as a process where “social cleavages are moderated if they are cross-cutting, but tend to generate conflict if they are mutually reinforcing”. Sarah Barclay describes consociationalism as “a way of uniting citizens as members of the state without asking them to renounce their ethnic or sectarian loyalties”.
In “The Debate About 1948”, Israeli writer Avi Shlaim lays out parallel versions of the causes, events and aftermath of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. Focusing on six critical areas of political and military contention, Shlaim provides the reader with traditional and revisionist (the writer’s position) viewpoints on what many Israelis call the War of Independence- and what many Palestinian Arabs refer to as al-Nakba or the disaster. This essay will address three of these points and attempt to break down the thrust of Shlaim’s article. First, there is the role of Great Britain in the War. It is well known that the withdrawal of Britain from Palestine exposed Zionist forces to the invading armies of Egypt, Transjordan and other Arab nations.
The Transformation of the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt In the 20th Century, the politics of the Middle East have largely been shaped by the rise of Islamist groups. It would be nearly impossible to conduct a case study on any political institution without at least discussing the effects of these groups. This is especially true in Egypt, where one organization in particular has had a profound, long-term effect on the social, political, and religious culture of the country. In fact, one cannot discuss Egyptian society in the past one hundred years at all without paying close attention to the effects of this organization. The organization is the Society of the Muslim Brothers (Jam’iyyat al-Ikhwan a-Muslimun).
There was a lot of attacking on both sides on both parties and the attacks were both very strong, especially when it came to the war in Iraq and the energy crisis. But what I observed was that every time Palin attacked one of Biden’s points, he always responded to all of them, defending both him and Barack Obama. He contradicted most of the attack made by Palin or elaborated on the subject if the attack was taken out of context. Again, he used a lot of statistics in refuting, making his argument seem very reliable. On the other hand, Sarah Palin hadn’t responded with many statistics at all.
How far do you agree that the most important reasons for Arab disunity in the years 1945-79 was the self-interest of individual Arab states? Arab disunity | Other | * Arab Israeli wars:-1948 Egypt and Jordan used the war to gain land-1956 Nasser wanted more power-1967 Syria and Lebanon didn’t join the Arab forces-Camp David Egypt were kicked out-Balance could be that they all had a common cause to help Palestine * Iranian revolution-Iran Iraq war * Palestine (PLO)-desire to create the state of Palestine-Lebanese civil war | * Religious differences-Lebanese civil war-Sunni and Shai Muslims * Islamic fundamentalism-Iranian revolution * Western involvement-Camp David * The creation of Israel | the Arab disunity was caused by different factors between the years 1945-79. The self-interest of individual Arab states caused alot of diunity between the Arabs but it wasn't thw only reason. Religious differences and western involvement also created disunity amonst the Arabs. The self-interest of individual Arab states was a major role in the causing of Arab disunity.
This problem is now so big that the European Union has as a priority project to erradicate it. Until now, there has not been a notorius succes. There have been many terrorist attacks during Europe´s history, but a notorious example could be the attacks that happened in Madrid the 11th of March, 2004. The March 11 attacks in Madrid are the result of Al Qaeda´s threats of revenge on Spain for its government's backing of the US-led invasion of Iraq. These attacks started at 7:37, with the first bomb.