Describe the assumptions of the major theoretical orientations in psychology, i.e. Psychodynamic, Behaviourist, Cognitive and Humanistic The purpose of this essay is to describe, explain and analyse the major psychological approaches and highlight their strengths and limitations. But what psychology is about? There are many ways to try answer the question. However, the most straightforward answer is that psychology is about understanding people; how they think, what they say and why they do what they do.
He also linked some childhood desires with the development of ones personality. The psychoanalytic theory is founded on the basis that there are inner forces that influence ones behavior unconsciously. This theory was developed after a thorough observation of people’s behavior where Sigmund conducted case studies. Feud argued that human mind can be divided three parts; the conscious mind, the preconscious mind and the unconscious mind. According to Asch M (2004), the conscious mind includes the things that we are aware of.
Troy Janerio-Duporte Social Psychology Semester 1 Discuss and evaluate the theory and evidence relating to errors and biases in the perception of people and events. David Rutherford Discuss and evaluate the theory and evidence relating to errors and biases in the perception of people and events. Within this essay I will attempt evaluate the relevant theories and evidence relating to the errors and biases in the perception of people and events. In order to fully evaluate to essay title we must define the specifics of social perception, highlight methods of communication including non-verbal, accessing the importance of attribution and the theories surrounding it. I will also be looking at specific situations that affect the errors and biases in the perception of people and events.
To understand more clearly the differences between the humanistic/existential and dispositional theories, the writer will compare and contrast them. In addition, the role of personality in affecting situational behavior will be described and the personality characteristics attributed to each theory will be examined. Finally, an explanation will be provided focusing on the interpersonal relational aspects that are related to each of the theories. The Role of Personality in Affecting Situational Behavior One’s personality can influence different kinds of behaviors and clearly plays a certain role in situational behavior. It has been always assumed that there is only one of his or her kind and one will most likely act differently from another, even if the situation is very similar.
In cultural psychology the mental processes are compared with the society and the individual who has grown up in that society. Comparatively, cross-cultural psychologists systematically research behavior across cultures in different cultural situations (Shiraev & Levy, 2010). Critical Thinking Critical thinking in cross-cultural psychology is important because cross-cultural psychology is about identifying the similarities and differences in individuals and how they function in his or her culture. Critical thinking is about making realistic, valid and reasonable evidence. Critical thinking is described as maintaining an attitude that is open=minded and doubtful (Shiraev & Levy, 2010).
The period from approximately 1930 to 1950 was marked by the establishment of the field and the development of a number of general systems. Gordon Allport (1937, as cited in McAdams, 2009) viewed personality psychology as the study of the individual person-an idiographic approach to personality-and how that individual adjusted to his environment. During that period however, other Psychologists had a nomothetic approach to personality in which personality emphasized how people were different from one another, as well as how they were alike. American psychology searched for universal laws that applied to all organisms instead of individualized studies. The period from 1950 to 1970 marked a second historical phase.
Critically assess the strengths and weaknesses of personal construct theory’s contribution to our understanding of individual differences in personality. (2000 words). Theories of personality developed in three psychological strands clinical, psychometric and experimental tradition. They were all interested in human behaviour and were mainly concerned with explaining why individual behaved differently to similar situations, and how behaviour could be altered for the good of oneself and society (Butt, 2007). The quantitative psychometric testing and the experimental tradition in which individual difference can be known were the dominant methodologies for many decades.
42.). Humans have an intrinsic desire to predict things; and to effectively interact with our world we must expect certain things to happen based upon the physical and social interactions we encounter. The construct of personality is the observed regularities in cognitive, affective and behavioural responses in various settings. Variation in a construct such as personality causes individual differences in response to real life experiences. In this essay, we look at whether the construct of personality is a realistic idea and whether personality traits truly exist as it is difficult to measure a theoretical concept accurately.
Perception The Role Perception Plays in Decision Making Tracey Redmann Axia College of University of Phoenix Perception 2 What is perception? Before looking at the role perception plays in the decision making process one should have a clear understanding of what perception is. According to Oxford Reference Online Premium (2009), perception is: The faculty of acquiring sensory experience. Study of the processes by which we gather and interpret visual information is largely the province of social psychologists, who have identified several general principles (‘laws’) of perception, and also some effects upon it of (among other things) motivation and attention. The former includes the phenomenon of the ‘figure-ground contrast’; that is, how we perceive objects distinctly from their surroundings.
Summarise two theories of identity and compare their usefulness for explaining real world issues. Question one. Everybody has an idea of who they are as people and the character traits that differentiate them from others. This essay seeks to summarise and compare two identity theories and compare their usefulness when they are applied to real world issues, specifically bullying in schools and adult racism. The two theories that will be examined are firstly Erikson's theory of psychosocial identity (PIT) and secondly Tajfel's social identity theory (SIT).