Functionalism studied the psychological processes which enable individuals to be able to adapt to their environments; each psychological process has an important role which is their main point of focus. William James, who is one of the founders of functionalism, felt that in order to study psychology, it had to come from multiple sources, through introspection, experimentation, the study of children, the
C. Define the major principles associated within this theory as they relate to the psychology of learning. D. Summarize how this theory makes use of prior experience in explaining how people learn E. Describe how this theory explains how permanent change in behavior takes place. F. Apply this theory to
Critically assess the strengths and weaknesses of personal construct theory’s contribution to our understanding of individual differences in personality. (2000 words). Theories of personality developed in three psychological strands clinical, psychometric and experimental tradition. They were all interested in human behaviour and were mainly concerned with explaining why individual behaved differently to similar situations, and how behaviour could be altered for the good of oneself and society (Butt, 2007). The quantitative psychometric testing and the experimental tradition in which individual difference can be known were the dominant methodologies for many decades.
Chomsky, Pinker and Fodor are nativist theorists and their ideas and theories will be discussed first. They will then be compared to theories from Skinner, Piaget and Karmiloff-Smith, the behaviourists or empiricist. There are other ideas of how language is acquired, such as imitation and a social constructivist approach from Vygotsky that will be examined further. The linguist Noam Chomsky (1965) is most clearly associated with the nativist approach in modern day. His views and ideas developed further from Plato’s original position of the nature of the mind.
Comparison and contrast essay: William Sheldon’s Type and Personality Assessment and Myers-Briggs Typology Index. Have you ever asked yourself why people act in one way and others in different ways? As we already know, people have different physical and psychological aspects and these traits influences their way of life. These aspects have been studied and classified by some scientists and we are going to focus on and compare two theories: William Sheldon’s and Myers-Briggs. The first theory, William Sheldon’s, who is an American psychologist, proposes that body types are related to personality characteristics.
In cultural psychology the mental processes are compared with the society and the individual who has grown up in that society. Comparatively, cross-cultural psychologists systematically research behavior across cultures in different cultural situations (Shiraev & Levy, 2010). Critical Thinking Critical thinking in cross-cultural psychology is important because cross-cultural psychology is about identifying the similarities and differences in individuals and how they function in his or her culture. Critical thinking is about making realistic, valid and reasonable evidence. Critical thinking is described as maintaining an attitude that is open=minded and doubtful (Shiraev & Levy, 2010).
Carl Rogers states ‘ The organism has one basic tendency and striving- to actualize, maintain and enhance the experiencing organism’ (Rogers, 1951, p487). But for a person to be able to grow and self- actualise they need to be in an environment that provides them with congruence, unconditional positive regard and empathy. The Psychodynamic Theory works with feelings that are in the unconscious mind, the subconscious and it is about going back into the clients past and understanding the causes of their beliefs, ways they then behave, thoughts and feelings. People throughout their lives may build up shields to mask these painful feelings, but they still will affect the way the person is as they are often hard to face. These shields are demonstrated in behaviour.
These big ideas can be categorized under social thinking, social influence, or social relations. The idea that we construct our social reality falls under social thinking, it describes the natural human urge to explain behavior, by attempting to attribute it to a cause, in order to make it seem orderly, predictable, and controllable (Myers, 2010). According to social psychology our social intuitions are powerful and sometimes perilous, suggesting that the human ability to understand something immediately, molds or influences behavior because it also shapes fears, attitudes, impressions, and relationships (Myers, 2010). It is also believed that social influences shape behavior as does behavior shape social influences. Myers (2010) provides an example as to how behavior is shaped by social influences making humans social creatures, “We speak and think in words we learned from others (Social psychology, p. 7).
This essay will evaluate the effectiveness, reliability, and the strengths and weaknesses of two different personality tests. The Thematic Apperception Test (projective) and the Myer Briggs Type Indicator (objective). It will also asses when these test should and shouldn’t be used. The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) is a projective method of testing created by Christiana D. Morgan and Henry A. Murray (1934) intended to evaluate a person's attitudes towards themselves and others. Moreover, this technique of testing was often utilized on individuals applying for employment in fields that required a high level of ability in dealing with others.
Transactional Analysis (TA) a theory developed by Eric Berne describing how and why people behave and interact. Berne used language more easily understood by practitioners and clients to explain his theory of personality using ego states, transactions, life scripts and psychological games. Berne describes each person as comprising of an amalgamation of three ego states of Parent, Adult and Child. Berne describes ego states “phenomenologically as a coherent system of feelings, and operationally as a set of coherent behaviour patterns; or pragmatically, as a system of feelings which motivates a related set of behaviour patterns.” (1961, p17) Transactions are the theory of communication between people, or even internal dialogue with oneself. Understanding transactions and improving communication is therapeutically beneficial.