The Spread Of African Civilizations Essay

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The Spread of African, Arab, and Asian Empires The early African, Arab, and Asian Empires had strong influence on the culture of much of the world. Although these Empires were established long ago, during the period of 2000 BC to 1294 AD, the influence of their culture, political, economic and social structures had profound effects on the world not only during its time, but also on today's civilizations as well. The African Empires The African Empires were the oldest of all empires and consisted of five kingdoms. These included the empires of Kush, Axum, Ghana, Mali, and Songhai, which ruled from 2000 B.C. to 1500 A.D. The Kush Empire began as an independent state that was established in 2000 BC, and was located just north of the Nile River. Its economy was based on farming until it discovered trade. The Kushites found large deposits of iron. They used it to make tools and weapons, and built a trade empire with its center at Meroe. In 150 A.D. its major trade competitor, Axum, attacked Kush and the entire kingdom was wiped out. Axum took over the kingdom of Kush and turned the Kushite people into slaves. The kingdom of Axum was located just east of the Nile River on the Ethiopian highlands. It became a powerful and lucrative point of trade for South Asia and the entire Mediterranean. Axum became famous for its exports of ivory, frankincense, myrrh, and slaves. In 500 A.D. the empire of Ghana emerged. It was located in the upper Niger River Valley along the West African coast. Its economy consisted of farming, gold and iron mining. Through a method of silent trade, it traded ivory, ostrich feathers, hides and slaves with the Berbers; Moroccans from North Africa who carried their wares across the desert by camel caravans. The Empire of Mali, led by its king Sundiata Keita, attacked and defeated Ghana in 1240 A.D. The next king of Mali, Mansa Musa, succeeded in
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