Europe quickly became the dominant region over the economic aspects of the Columbian Exchange, however their social influence in the Americas and Africa developed slower during the time period of 1492 to 1750. In the mid-fifteenth century, European interest in Africa expanded from goods to incorporate slaves. Europeans began to take over African civilizations and keep natives as their slaves. This was not a new practice to keep war captives as slaves. However the Europeans began to export these African slaves across the globe to established colonies in both North and South America for the first time.
Strategic factors played a changing role in Britain’s relationship with its African empire throughout the expansion period 1870-1902, the consolidation period 1902-1955 and the de-colonisation period 1955-1981. In some of these periods Strategy was right at the foreground of Britain’s rule in Africa and other times it was pushed to the back by other major factors. These include economic considerations, International relations, changing attitudes and nationalism. Many historians such as Martin Pugh saw that ‘the most obvious motive for British expansion was strategic’. Britain’s strategic motives in Africa centred on thwarting the growth of rival European powers as well as securing its interests in Africa.
European Imperialism in Africa and Asia European nations followed to establish trade contacts in Africa and Asia. Their influence in the non-Western world increased gradually in the next three centuries. Beginning in 1870, European nations moved rapidly to extend their control over almost all of Africa and in most of Asia. The industrialized nations competed with each other for natural resources and raw materials such as copper, rubber, petroleum, and cotton after the Industrial Revolution spread within Europe. The industrial middle class, who had gained greater influence in the governments in Europe, encouraged imperialist ventures to seize control in Africa and Asia.
Ironically, the _________ were the world’s greatest slave traders and later became the most aggressive suppressers of the slave trade. 18. Africans wanted European manufactured goods, so when the ___________ ended, Africans expanded their ___________ trade by developing new exports. 19. The most successful export from West Africa after abolition was _________________.
Around 1450-1700 Western Europe expanded their Atlantic trade. They began exploring other parts of the world, and even building colonies in some of these places. They began to explore Africa as well as the Americas. Western Europe gained many things from this new land, which they were able to use in order to enhance their own economy. Western Europe’s expansion of Atlantic trade, through exploration and colonization, not only improved their own economy, but also the economy of America, through sharing new trade products and crops as well as beginning the slave trade.
The era of the trans-Atlantic slave trade was a defining period in the demographic, social, political, and economic development of four continents. While Western European states were able to consolidate their domestic identity and power through the exploitation of the global system of trade, the effects on West African and Caribbean societies were far more destructive. In many regions of Africa, especially on the western coast, the political landscape and societal organization were reworked into highly militarized states based on the export of human labourers. In the Caribbean region, caste/class slave societies arose in which the enslavement of the overwhelming majority of the population was enforced by law. In both cases, the slave trade worked to undermine the legitimacy of political institutions and sustain large gulfs between the interests of the ruling classes and those of the common people.
Imperialism in Asia and Africa The imperialism in Asia and Africa that occurred in the late 1800’s and early 1900’s differed in reasons, scope, and impact on peoples and nations. Imperialism is when a mother country takes over a smaller nation or colony for political, social, and/or economic reasons. Imperialism has been a major force in shaping the modern world. The effects of Imperialism have been interpreted from a variety of viewpoints. This major Imperialism occurred during the late 19th Century and early 20th century.
Imperialism, Alliances, and War New Imperialism -European states spread their control over ten million square miles and 150 million people, necessary for a great power. - Imperialism- policy of extending a nation'a authority by territory acquisition or by establishing economic or political control over other nations. - Direct control, protectorate- local rulers in charge, sphere of influence- exclusive trading rights or privileges Motives for imperialism -New markets available in less developed countries and safe sources of raw materials. -However this can be debated, Britain did not invest in their own colonies. - Social Darwinism- advance European Nations should bring benefits of higher culture to more so-called backwards people.
Unit 1- Age Of Imperialism Summary: In the late 1800s, European nations became involved in a new kind of empire building, imperialism, which arose from the need for self-sufficiency, new markets, and places in which an ever-growing population could settle. European nations divided up almost all of Africa in the late 1800s. Communication and transportation improved, and the slave trade was abolished. For the most part, Africa and Africans were exploited, and tensions developed that would lead to further struggles later in the 1900s. In India the British government assumed direct control.
Name: James Allam Ejidio Course: African History CHANGES AND FACTORS THAT OCCURRED AFTER THE ARRIVAL OF EUROPEANS IN AFRICA Introduction From the 17th through the 20th centuries, Europeans powers scrambled to divide Africa among themselves in a monumentous colonial movement that left lasting impressions and far-reaching consequences for Africa and the international political stage. Five major impacts of colonialism in Africa were Combat against other African, long lasting racial oppression, widespread poverty, Underdevelopment and Distortion of the traditional organization of African life. Combat against other Africans Most Europeans