In the philosophical view of determinism with respect to free will, it focuses more on the circumstances surrounding the agent instead of just the individual agent. A strength to determinism is that there is a cause for everything, therefore nothing is left to chance and that there is always a reason to be traced back to. On the other hand, the same theory states that agents are not responsible for their own actions because previous events dictated their behavior, and that is considered by many to be a weakness of determinism. Critics of determinism claim that having a universal view of determinism will lead to moral irresponsibility and moral decay (Nichols and Knobe 664). Compatibilism, also referred to as soft determinism, is “the view that all events, including human actions, are caused.
Knowledge, its followers believed, could only come from the careful study of actual conditions and the application of an individual's reason, not from religious inspiration or traditional beliefs. Liberty meant freedom of religion, freedom of the press, and freedom from unreasonable government (torture, censorship, and so on). The importance of the Declaration in the history of law continues even to the present day. Whatever may be the value or worthlessness of its general phrases, it is under the influence of this document that the conception of the public rights of the individual has developed in the positive law of the states of the European continent. Until it appeared public law literature recognized the rights of heads of states, the privileges of class, and the privileges of individuals or special
However, Hobbes maintains that the sovereign is not party to the initial contract or covenant made by men, but bound by natural law which enjoins men to seek peace, stability and justice. There are contentious issues Hobbes sets to confront head-on in the submissions he made in these preliminary considerations, namely, that man moved from the state of nature out of an organic and legal contract, and secondly that even though sovereign authority is constituted and established by men, yet the sovereign and its authority is not party to the contract, but rather bound
'Only Hard Determinism is justifiable' Discuss. Determinism is the idea that all actions are governed by laws outside of one’s control. Some philosophers believer that one’s ability to make free choices is an illusion whereas, others state that there is something else beyond understanding that may cause one’s actions to be determined. There are a variety of theories which are response to dealing with debate about free will and determinism. Hard determinism is the theory that human behaviour and actions are wholly determined by external factors, and therefore humans do not have genuine free will or ethical accountability.
However whereas absolute means unchanging and universal, relative means your theory of morality can change. Everyone can believe different things about morality and there won’t be any right or wrong in this. Using the same example as above relativism would approach the situation completely differently than absolutism. Whereas absolutism would completely be against abortion and would not
Kant devised two different types of imperatives which allow us to make our decisions, hypothetical imperatives are the rules that we follow to attain a personal outcome or a selfish wish whereas categorical imperatives are intrinsically right. His first categorical imperative was meant to establish that humans should only act according to a law that can be universalised. ‘’Act only according to that maxim whereby you can, at the same time, will that it should become a universal law’’ – (Kant the moral order). The second of the imperatives is that we as humans should never use another human as a means to an end, treat them all with value. ‘’Act in such a way that you treat humanity, whether in your own person or in the person of any other, always at the same time as an end and never merely as a means to an end’’.
The Equal Protection Clause is totally geared toward the actions of the government and not private citizens. It is designed to prevent discrimination by the government, however, it does not prevent any such discrimination by private citizens. In order to determine if the Equal Protection Clause
Although libertarians do not advocate the abolition of the state they insist that the state restricts individual’s freedom and therefore its functions should be minimalized. Another Liberationist argument is that free market economics should be used as the state should not interfere with economic or social affairs. Furthermore Libertarians believe that, on every issue, you have the right to decide for yourself what's best for you and to act on that belief so long as you respect the right of other people to do the same and deal with them peacefully and honestly. Robert Nozick, an American Philosopher argued that the state should not provide welfare or taxation as he believed it is fundamentally a form of slavery. His view was that the state forcing taxpayers to give up a proportion of their income, which are effectively the state forcing taxpayers to work for the state without pay.
Their basic altitudes towards the democracy and nonviolence conflict with each other. King’s own account of his philosophy of nonviolence indicated the extent to which he was influenced by Thoreau’s theoretical framework for thinking about civil disobedience and political obligation. Thoreau has confidence in democracy and the belief of unifying individuals of the society to realize it. However, Nietzsche overtly objected to democratic politics, with thinking that love, freedom and democracy are all the results of recognizing the right. Although democratic practices were on the way in the capitalist countries, he asserted that democratic politics possessed no advancement.
The principle, Butler, is not liable for torts caused by the third party/independent contractor. The respondent superior does not apply to this case since Sandidge is an independent contractor. Because Butler did not have any control on how Sandidge performed their work, there is no ground for Pugh’s to sue for wrongful death. In fact, Sandidge should be held liable for not meeting safety standards since Mr. Pugh was technically employed by Sandige. “For a general contractor to be liable for its independent contractor's acts, it must have the right to control the means, methods, or details of the independent contractor's work.