In the eleventh and twelfth centuries, however, new elements were introduced that began to transform the economic foundation of Western Civilization: a revival of trade, considerable expansion in the circulation of money, the emergence of specialized craftspeople and artisans, and the growth and development of towns. The revival of commercial activity was a gradual process. During the chaotic conditions of the Early Middle Ages, large-scale trade had declined in Western Europe except for Byzantine contacts with Italy and Jewish traders who moved back and forth between the Muslim and Christian worlds. By the end of the tenth century, however, people with both the skills and the products for commercial activity were emerging in Europe. Venice sent wine, grain, and timber to Constantinople in exchange for silk cloth, which was then peddled to other communities.
Near the end of this period it was expanded to include Europe. The changing in how the routes placement altered interactions on the Silk Road. Also, amount of trade was altered by the interaction along the Silk Road. 200 BCE to 600 CE trade flourished. But after the collapse of Rome, Persia, and Han or classical societies, trading fell.
So if a man had any desire for a wife or family, a clerical life was out of the question. Though there was a sort of soft unrest against feudalism during the Medieval Age, it wasn’t until after the Renaissance that liberalism became known as an ideology in and of itself. After the plague swept through Europe, killing off one third of the population, significant gaps were left in social structure. This presented
The Middle Ages themselves actually occurred roughly between the 5th Century, to the 15th Century, roughly, however, the Middle Ages themselves actually started ending in various places about 150 years before that, and just started transforming in progressive stages. Some of the most important events that occurred, were the transformation in art, the innovations in architecture, the Crusades, Joan of Arcadia, the spread of the Roman Catholic Church, and the growth and spread of towns. In the dark ages, art was dull, flat, and two-dimensional. The images emphasized figures of importance by increasing the size of them, or placing them in a location that would allow the viewer to know of their importance, such as in the middle of the image. The images would have little or no sense of direction, depth, or time, and pictures could even be so confusing that a single picture could literally tell a story.
The Miller’s Prologue shows a classic example of the importance of social order, because the Host clearly wants the Monk to tell the second tale following the Knight, so that the storytelling could proceed by social rank. However the Miller, being the uncouth and bawdy character that he is, interrupts the Host, and insists on telling his tale next. This interaction
How far was the old order restored by the decisions taken at the Congress of Vienna in 1815? While there were forces of continuity present in Europe in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, some forces of change evolved. The Napoleonic Wars left Europe in chaos, but also catalyzed the spread of new ideologies. The Congress of Vienna was an international conference held in 1814–15 to agree upon the settlement of Europe after the Napoleonic Wars. The decisions made restored the rule of legitimate rulers as well as autocratic government, and restored some territories to their pre-Napoleon frontiers.
It wasn’t until the Gothic period that stained glass began its rise to fame. It once again was lost by disaster, however this time humans were behind it. The early Renaissance art changed the glory and technique of stained glass and it seemed to lose its luster. It wasn’t until the 19th century that the tradition of stained glass would be restored. The art began its move west from Europe to America and was a great success into the 20th century.
Renaissance Period The Renaissance was a great cultural movement that began in Italy during the early 1400’s. It spread to England, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain and other countries in the late 1400’s and ended in the 1700’s. It is one of the most beautiful, names in history(Wikipedia 1). It is beautiful because it shows an awakening of awareness. During this period of time, the modern world was born as Gutenberg perfected printing, Christopher Columbus discovered the Americas, Copernicus found that the earth revolved around the sun, Martin Luther founded a new religion, the use of the cannon and the harquebus ended chivalry and da Vinci and Michelangelo created a new form of art.
(Strayer, page 656).” This portrays how everyone strives to get on top of the ladder and achieve success. They are not bound down because of ranking before birth. Due to this, the Ottoman Empire do not have the same Europeans view status. The Turks try to achieve the highest point they can and being lazy or worthless will gain them nothing. So, their empire is always up and ready to work for their empire.
As traditional art forms had become outdates due to industrialization. It seems like the term “modernism” has been a conflicting term in the academic world. This is because the term “modernism” acquires a different scope and penetration in each different academic discipline. The inception of modern music typically located at the close of the 19th century, while to talk modern in English literature is to focus upon a relatively highly influential body of work produced in the first two decades of the 20th century. In the history of art, on the other hand, the student of modernism can expect to run a gamut from the French painting of the 1860s to the American art of a century later and may even be directed as far back as the later 18th century (Modernism, 2003).