The Road to Multiple Intelligences: a Narrative on Howard Gardner Essay

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Running head: A NARRATIVE ON HOWARD GARDNER The Road to Multiple Intelligences: A Narrative on Howard Gardner Sheila Thomas Capella University Address: 4901 Far Hills Avenue, D-1 City, State, Zip: Kettering, OH 45429 Phone: 937-626-7145 E-Mail: statsgrad@yahoo.com Advisor: Heidi Kopacek Degree: PhD Abstract Although the idea of multiple intelligences is not new, some consider Howard Gardner the father of multiple intelligences (MI) theory. Through a synthesis of literature reviews, this paper narrates the profound events in Gardner’s upbringing, political, social, and educational background that helped shape his ideas, theories, and utility for MI. Outlined and discussed are the seven intelligences and the eight criteria for defining a new intelligence. Also given platform is the lack of empirical evidence for MI theory. This paper culminates with a glimpse at MI implemented in 21st century classrooms and suggestions for establishing a MI learning environment. This narrative begins with a prequel of the early and modern intelligence theories and conjectures of noted philosophers and psychologist such as Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, Kant, Locke, Galton, Cattell, Binet, Spearman, Thurstone, and Piaget synthesized to form Gardner’s works on MI. Table of Contents Table of Contents iii Introduction …..…………………………………………………………………..……..………………………….1 Earlier and Modern Intelligence Theories 2 The Humbled Beginnings of Ralph and Hilde Gaertner 7 Profound Events and Intellectual Pursuits 7 Influential Men and Profound Encounters 8 Howard Gardner Today 9 The Road to Multiple Intelligences 9 Gardner’s Earlier Views 9 Gardner’s Seven Intelligences 10 The Intelligence Criteria 11 Gardner’s Critics 13 MI in 21st Century Classrooms 15

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