So we learn the virtue by copying someone who is a role model or mentor to confirm our virtue is right and finally practice and experience said virtue. Already we can see a weakness forming within Aristotle’s concept of virtue ethics, foe when learning our virtues from education, emulation and experience. How do we know we are being educated in the correct and socially accepted way? For example in a different time period or different country we may be taught that being rash for example is a good virtue to possess, where as in modern western societies today being rash is thought of as being a bad trait to have. Carrying on with this train of thought, we have the same problem with the aspect of emulation, or in other words copying.
An activity done by extrinsic motivation may not be done because a person enjoys it, it’s often done because they want the end outcome. Working out is a great example, the result of looking better is extrinsic motivation, and the working out is not done because they like how they feel when they workout. Amotivation is the lack of motivation or drive to do something (McDavid, Cox, & Amorose, 2012). Amotivation is when someone does like doing something and feels there is no need to do that
Psychological models and neurobiological mechanisms of mindfulness training as treatment for addictions. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 1-14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0028490 Brewer, J. A., Elwafi, H. M., Davis, J. H. (2012) “Craving to Quit: psychological models and neurobiological mechanisms of mindfulness training as treatment for addictions.” Psychology of Addictive Behaviors (in press). Capuzzi, D and Stauffer, M.D (2012). Foundations of Addiction Counseling.
The principle of utility states that the quality of life matters when it comes to pleasure, and if we were to make the quality of a person’s life better, we must be useful and relieve that person from pain and suffering. (Falikowski, 2005) We can also refer to Ayn Rand’s Ethical Egoism to conjure that physician’s assisting suicide is ethical, since there are few people in society who suffer from long-term illnesses for which there aren’t any permanent cures. Ending their life is the only cure to stopping their
Uncivil behaviors that are not addressed, may progress into threatening situations or result in temporary or permanent illness or injury. I am inclined to define incivility as behavior that does not comply with The Golden Rule, which essentially states either of the following: 1) Positive Form: One should treat others as one would like others to treat oneself. 2) Negative Form: One should not treat others in ways that one would not like to be treated. This concept can be explained from the perspective of: 1) Psychology: empathizing with others. 2) Philosophy: perceiving their neighbor as self.
Dewey believes we consider these more as abilities that exist far from our impulsive desires. So in short, bad habits are acts that make us feel shameful, good habits are admirable. John Dewey mentions though out his writing on habits and will WE are our habit. Now even though I do not entirely comprehend all the points he makes through out the writing, I do know that he mentions several times that to fix or undo our bad habits we must replace with an equally energizing habit that is of goodness. Also to go along with that, you must be able to have more than solely will power to defy a habit.
I chose to contrast Erikson’s theory and the selective optimization with compensation theory. In Erikson’s theory he states that the final stage of psychosocial development theory is Integrity Versus Despair. Acceptance is relevant to achieve Integrity. Whether the outcome is good or bad, successful or disappointing, having good friends or bad friends; we should accept life as it is without being bitter or angry. With Despair, you regret your past decisions, you’re angry with the course of your life, and you feel that your time for achieving your “wanted” life is running short.
The level of wellness or health is, in part, determined by the ability to deal with and defend against stress. Health is on a continuum with movements between a state of optimum well being and illness which is defined as degrees of disharmony. It is determined by physiological, psychological, socio-cultural, spiritual and developmental stages variables.’ There are different types of models of health, the first model is about positive and negative health, positive health is a positive attitude towards health, so the person achieves a healthy state to keeping fit and healthy ob their own and make sure they do this themselves. Negative health is when the person doesn’t believe in looking after himself or herself, and doesn’t have a positive attitude for looking after their well being and health, but they are ‘healthy’ they just don’t have a good attitude towards looking after their
Hester Prynne exemplifies the definition of human strength as well as the positive outcome of adversity. The difference between the way Chillingworth and Dimmesdale handles adversity from Hester is the ability to hide and express their emotions. Unlike Hester who calmly and thoroughly evaluates every adversity, Chillingworth and Dimmesdale, both mentally weak, allow their feelings to take control of them causing them to lose sight of the goal and fall into disarray. Attitude while handling these grievances are important because of the way they interact with ones actions. Allowing your emotions to overwhelm you displays weakness causing negative traits and habits to form leading to a demoralizing fate.
(1978) described self-handicapping as obstacle to successful performance that is constructed by a person to protect or enhance self-esteem. Hence, though such obstacle may meddle with the performance of an individual, it allows the person to discount responsibility for failure and rather take credit for achieved success. If one fails, attribution to poor skill can be discounted because of the presence of another potential cause. If one manages to succeed, the attribution to his outstanding ability will increase because good performance emerged despite the presence of an obstacle (Kelly, 1971). In other words, self-handicapping behaviors are designed so that there are desirable attributions for both success and