The Punishment of Present Day Offenders Has Elements of the Celtic and Roman Approaches

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We can see from research that present day punishments are very closely related to those used by the Celt’s and Romans. Below we see the Celtic ways and the changes that occurred due to the influence of the Romans. Celtic punishments were imposed by way of fines, restitution, deterrence and rehabilitation. While there were no prisons at this time the main methods of punishment are still used today. For offenders at this time fines were imposed according to economic status and a guarantee of ability to pay was needed. This was sometimes underwritten by a person of equal of higher caste. Those unable to pay or to get a guarantor would lose certain civil rights including employment in positions of trust, practising professions and religious rights. These losses and the seclusion imposed by communities on offenders were used to deter further offending. Offenders were not allowed to leave the community territory but they were still allowed to work on their own land, trying to redeem themselves with their efforts. They were given every opportunity by the community for redemption. Everyone within the Celtic society had an ‘honour’ price related to their material wealth, which was used to decide compensations for crimes committed. After Roman invasion harsher penalties were introduced, although local governments and communities could still regulated their own laws as long as there was no conflict with the laws of Rome. Serious crimes involving potential death penalties or slavery in the mines were tried by the Governor, who would deal with any cases involving Roman citizens. All citizens could request to be tried at Rome if they wished. To aid the Governor enforce these penalties and the law in general he had a body of Police, jailers and executioners made up of men (speculators) from the Roman army. The penalties given out at this time were brutal ranging for

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