The Practice of Fgm in Ghana

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THE PRACTICE OF FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION (FGM) AND ITS IMPACTS IN GHANAIAN SOCIETY: THE CASE OF KOGLE IN THE NANDOM DISTRICT OF THE UPPER WEST REGION BY BEYOG GANGME JANUARIUS (4556010) SUPERVISOR: REV. FR. DR. PETER ADDAI- MENSAH DEPARTMENT OF RELIGIOUS STUDIES, KNUST CHAPTER ONE 1.0. INTRODUCTION Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) is one of the most dangerous practices that cause torture and death among those who undergo the procedure. Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) is non-therapeutic surgical modification of the female genitalia. It is an ancient tradition in large parts of Africa, including Ghana, especially in the northern part of the country. It is estimated that about 100–140 million girls and women worldwide have undergone FGM, and each year a further two million girls and women are at risk of this practice. It is performed on girls aged 4–12 years and in some cultures as early as a few days after birth or as late as just before marriage. Female Genital Mutilation is prevalent in 28 African countries and among a few minority groups in Asia (WHO, 2006). 1.1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Female Genital Mutilation refers to a variety of operations on the private parts of women and young girls that involves partial or total removal of the external genitalia. The practice causes injury to female genital organs for cultural or non- therapeutic reasons (WHO 2010). The cultures in which FGM are practiced are very diverse and so are the reasons behind it. In common is the role in the women's cultural identity that FGM plays (WHO, 1998) and it is often viewed as a cultural right. Most societies practicing FGM hold high regard for purity and sexual restraint before marriage and the mutilation is a way of protecting and controlling virginity (Little, 2003). FGM has been recognized by international organizations as a human right violation as well as a

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