Fundamentals of Research Methodology PSYCH/540 July 29, 2013 Dr. Kimberly Wilkins Abstract The content of this paper will discuss a field of concepts pertaining to fundamental research in methodology, and provide a discussion in the important factors concerning the psychology of science research. The contents of this paper will contain an explanation and definition of scientific method along the method steps. A discussion in this paper will cover qualitative and quantitative data, and the testing, and construction of the scientific construct theory. Fundamentals of Research Methodology The science of behavior, and the mind is known as psychology and variables factors of the effects of behavior and mind from internal and external
the application of science to fulfill a need or address a problem * How are technology and science related? How are they different? related by helping scientists make discoveries, technology fulfills needs and addresses problems. technology is an application of science Nature of Science topic * Define each of the following terms: * hypothesis an educated guess * theory well supported, well accepted explanation for a broad range of observations * law well-supported description of the behavior of the natural world * fact a phenomena about which competent observers agree * What is the difference between a scientific theory and a scientific law? law describes, theory explains * What is the difference between a scientific theory and a scientific hypothesis?
Structural theories such as functionalism and Marxism are macro (large scale), and deterministic: they see society as a real thing existing over and above us, shaping our ideas and behaviour – individuals are like puppets, manipulated by society. Social action theorists use qualitative research methods to gather an in-depth understanding of human behaviour and the reasons behind such behaviour. This method investigates the why and how of decision making, not just what, where and when, for example, covert or overt participant observations and unstructured interviews. Structural approaches use methods that are scientific, as they want quantitative data (e.g. questionnaires and surveys).
So these methods produce reliable data that can be checked by other researchers, which is one of the most important features in science. In the natural sciences, it is claimed that scientists values and opinions make no difference to the outcome of their research. However, positivists know that in sociology they are dealing with humans and therefore there is a danger that the researcher may 'contaminate' the research. Positivists thus use quantitative methods which allow maximum objectivity, like experiments, questionnaires and structured interviews. Durkheim chose to study suicide to demonstrate that sociology was a science with its own distinct subject matter.
This essay will explore the differences and similarities between two social scientists’ view of how social order is made and rebuilt. Both are concerned with governance (Silva, E, pg. 309), that being the action or manner of governing either individuals or society as a whole and how authority and discipline are exercised. The two propositions that will be compared and contrasted are: · Goffman - that social order is produced through the everyday actions and practices of people as they live their lives (Silva, E, pg. 316) · Foucault - that social order is produced through the power of knowledge and discourse (that which is talked about), which are the products of historical processes (Silva, E, pg.
Butterfield (1965) author of “The Origins of Modern Science” persuasively argues that what materialized in the 16th century and subsequent years was not necessarily the results of new information, but transformed minds. Helweg, (1997) explains that other cultures have made significant findings to the human race; i.e., the Hindus introduction of zero and the Muslins contributions to algebra. Christian also contributed an exclusive set of expectations required by science. Many Christians were not only scientist but researchers that validated that we existed in a methodical universe. They understood that revealing such knowledge would prove powerful in evidence that such a universe was shaped by a methodical
Qualitative research uses the information found in order to provide an understanding to the human experience and behavior ("Encyclopedia.com", 2013). Quantitative and qualitative research differs from one another in terms of what data or information that they yield and display, as well as how that information is interpreted. For example quantitative research will portrait the percentage or statistics of a matter and qualitative research will look into and portrait the life pattern or the behavior of individuals to get them into those statistics. Both can relate to the human service field as well as the scientific method, which does get used within the human service profession. Both quantitative and qualitative can be incorporated into the scientific method.
Explain concepts of Interpretivist and Positivism This essay will broadly define the concepts of interpretive and positivist paradigms in social theory. These two differing perspectives often use different approaches to the study of social life, which broadly defined, can be explained as quantitative and qualitative, looking at contrasts, comparatives and criticisms. Positivists believe that it is possible to create a science of society, based upon the same principals and procedures as the natural sciences, such as biology. Further, using methods adopted by the natural sciences would prove that behaviour was governed by principals of cause and effect. Social facts, positivists argue, can be observed, measured, and quantified, (hence why positivism is also known as Quantitative) producing data/statistics which, when analysed can reveal correlations, patterns of behaviour, causes (cause and effect), and ultimately, laws of human behaviour.