The Power of Everyday Practices

461 Words2 Pages
"The Power of Everyday Practices", in Brock et al, (2012). "Science As Culture", by Aryn Martin. The main focus of this chapter, "Science As Culture", by Aryn Martin is how science is embedded within social context. Martin states how scientists are human and have certain identities based on gender, class, age, etc. and of how these identities can be bias on scientific facts. Martin also talks about the effects of science on society. The author introduces Foucault's influence, that science is implicated in how institutions govern individuals and populations. Another focal point of this chapter is how scientific findings are reviewed by their peers to certify knowledge. Martin also explains how knowledge is social and material. According to Martin, the humanness of scientists needs to be considered because observation is critical to the scientific methods. The laws and descriptions of science are meant to be universal, so any two perceivers can have the same outcome. As Martin mentions, science can be viewed as an "Old Boy's Club" as there are exclusions of who are allowed to occupy the "centre" within this club. Women are unrepresented in science, math classes, university majors, and employment positions. If there are constraints, - and there are - it can lead to misrepresentations of scientists in terms of gender, class, race, and ability. Peer review is an important aspect of certifying scientific knowledge. At one of the earlier institutions, called "The Royal Society", individuals of that institution met weekly and showed their experiments. This process was also used to weed out fraudulent claims or false evidence. This, perceived through the concept of “unpacking the centre”, allows the trusted reviewers to have significant control over what becomes knowledge and power. Scientific knowledge includes language, images and things because they
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