Amino acids are considered to be strong acids because they have a strong charge on the amino group. This strong charge on the amino group creates an affinity for carboxylic acids to lose a proton. The isoelectric point, pI, is the pH of an aqueous solution of an amino acid at which the molecules have no net charge. In other words, the positively charged groups are exactly balanced by the negatively charged groups. When this dissolved amino acid is titrated with an acid it reacts like a base, and when titrated with base it acts like an acid.
It is a weak bond, but is decisive in controlling the structure of both water and ice. In a water molecule, two hydrogen atom are bonded to an oxygen atom share a pair of electrons between them by a covalent bond. In H2O, only two of the six outer-shell electrons of oxygen are used for this purpose, leaving four electrons which are organized into two non-bonding pairs. Salts are ionic compounds that result from the neutralisation reaction of an acid and an alkali. They are composed of an equal number of cations and anions so that the product is electrically neutral.
When the droplets are formed they rise to the surface because they are less than water and are evaporated. Dispersants are more effective when used quickly. Skimmers are run along the top of the ocean to pick it up it is somewhat similar to absorption except skimmers are likely to pick up less water. The absorption idea was of our own because it seemed it might be more effective than skimming but it does have the potential for having a negative effect on the environment because it does pick up more than oil. Our hypothesis is that dispersants are probably the most efficient way to clean up an oil spill.
Given that silica is an absorbent, TLC is a “form of adsorption chromatography” (Varcoe 2001: 8-1). The silica gel used in the stationary phase is a highly polar compound capable of hydrogen bonding whereas in the mobile phase the solvent is a less polar compound, specifically ethyl acetate. | | Figure 1. Structure of silica gel particle (Varcoe 2001: 8-1) | Figure 2. Structure of Ethyl Acetate (Toxipedia 2010) | The polar interactions between the solutions and both of the absorbent and the solvent can occur as a dipole-dipole interaction, the result of the contact of two polar molecules with permanent dipoles such as hydrogen bonding and also dipole-induced dipole interaction in which a molecule with a permanent dipole polarizes another molecule.
R C R' O R C H O an aldehyde a ketone Because they contain the polar carbonyl group, aldehydes and ketones are polar compounds. However, they cannot form hydrogen bonds one to another, as do alcohols. Therefore, the boiling points of aldehydes and ketones are less than those of alcohols of similar molecular weight, but greater than those of hydrocarbons of similar molecular weight. The solubility of aldehydes and ketones in H2O is significant if they contain less than five carbons. This is because hydrogen bonds to the water molecules are formed.
Water is a common impurity because it is the solvent from which the acetylsalicylic acid is obtained. It would only take a small amount of water to make the melting point lower. As we have more impurities, the melting point will lower and the range of melting will become greater. A pure substance will melt with a small range of 1 to 3 °C while an impure product might melt with a range of 5 to 10 °C or more. The ferric chloride test was done to determine the purity of crystal acetylsalicylic acid.
If the substrate (key) doesn’t fit it won’t work with the enzyme (lock). This is important because without enzyme the processes would be to slow and poisonous chemicals would build up. The factors that affects if an enzyme would work correctly or not is if there is a suitable pH level and temperature. An example of an enzyme is Catalase. It is the one that we used in our experiment.
This is called the shaking and venting procedure. This procedure allows the benzoic acid (benzoic is the solute) to establish an equilibrium between the two layers the organic layer and the aqueous layer. Benzoic acid, although it has dissolve in water, is not very soluble in water (it will only dissolve in water at elevated temperature). However, benzoic acid is more soluble in methylene chloride. That is why once you add the benzoic acid aqueous solution and the CH2Cl2 in the separatory funnel the benzoic acid moves from the aqueous layer into the methylene chloride organic layer.
Dispersion forces occur in nonpolar molecules. Hydrogen bonds are very unique. Hydrogen bonds are a very strong form of a dipole-dipole force. Although bond is in the name, it is not a bond. It is named due to the fact that a hydrogen atom has bonded to one of three elements, nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine, in that compound.
Thus aquatic plants can live in water because sunlight can reach them. Infrared light is strongly absorbed by the hydrogen-oxygen or OH bonds. Since the water molecule is not linear and the oxygen atom has a higher electronegativity than hydrogen atoms, it carries a slight negative charge, whereas the hydrogen atoms are slightly positive. As a result, water is a polar molecule with an electrical dipole moment. Water also can form an unusually large number of intermolecular hydrogen bonds (four) for a molecule of its size.