Introduction As our closest living ancestors, bonobos (Pan Americus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have often been used as an ancestral model to study social and cultural hominoid behavior. Chimpanzees and Bonobos' DNA differs only 1% from humans yet their social behavior is very primitive and different compared to humans. Molecular studies indicate that humans, chimpanzees, and bonobos are very closely related in a lineage that split into hominid and Pan lines approximately 6-7 million years ago, possibly following a divergence from the gorilla lineage about 1– 2 million years earlier (Caccone and Powell, 1989). Chimpanzees are great apes, under the Homo lineage, that have been known for their male dominant, meat eating and generally violent culture. Meanwhile bonobos, also great apes, are on a completely different behavior spectrum, they are a female dominant, more peaceful, and heavily sexually oriented society.
Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies By: Jared Diamond World History AP Journal Entries And Reaction Paper August 12, 2015 Summary: Chapter 1 - “Up to the Starting Line” The first chapter begins with the origins of the human species. Jared Diamond believes in the concept of evolution and therefore, analyzes, what he calls, our three closest relatives: the gorilla, the common chimpanzee, and the pygmy chimpanzee. Fossils show us that 4 million years ago we achieved an upright position through evolution. It is also reported that our body and relative brain size began to grow at the same time that stone tools became common, which was about 2.5 million years ago. About half a million years ago human fossils diverged from the Homo erectus in their enlarged, rounder, and less angular skulls.
The main theory of plate tectonics was first developed by a German called Alfred Wegener in 1912. He saw that the continents appeared to fit together like the pieces of a jigsaw, a good example of this is the African and South American coastlines. This would suggest that they were at one time in Earth’s history joined together as part of a super continent Pangaea, which separated forming Gondawanaland and Laurasia to the north of the planed. Later evidence was found to support this theory; fossilised remains of a dinosaur, called the mesosaurus, was found on the east coast of South America and the west coast of Africa around the country of Gabon. There were also the same fossilised pollen species and rock sediments on these coastlines.
Ardi’s skull was instrumental in determining that she was bipedal and proved that she had a small brain, a less-protruding muzzle, and a short cranial base. Pelvis and Limbs Now let’s move down the skeleton and talk about Ardi’s pelvis, hands and feet. Ardi’s pelvis and limbs were the major indicators that she was bipedal but was also able to move through the trees like an ape. Jill Neimark’s article describes how the upper blades of Ardi’s pelvis, the ilium, are shorter and broader than in apes which would have lowered her center of mass so that she could balance on one foot when she walked. In contrast the lower part of her hip was powerfully primitive like an ape adapted for climbing.
Ranging in size from 30 g (1.1 oz) to 9 kg (20 lb), lemurs share many common, basal primate traits, such as divergent digits on their hands and feet and nails instead of claws (in most species). However, their brain-to-body size ratio is smaller than that of anthropoid primates, and among many other traits they share with other strepsirrhine primates, they have a "wet nose" (rhinarium). Lemurs are generally the
The frontal lobe makes humans much more advanced than other mammals. The sheep brain does not have as many ridges, elongated in shape, horizontally placed, has a smaller cerebellum, and larger olfactory bulb for smell. Humans use other senses such as vision and hearing more prominently than seeing. Sheep also have a larger pineal gland which is responsible for controlling reproduction and circadian
Pepito M. Alipao III Ms. Kaye Lim BSHRM 2-1 RESEARCH PAPERS Introduction: This research paper let you know all about the thing you need to know on primates. This will also inform you all the type of primates. This will also let you learn all about the new world monkeys and old world monkeys. And also where they came from and what do they do and how do they do to survive their everyday life. A primate is a member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains prosimians) and simians With the exception of humans, who inhabit every continent on Earth, most primates live in tropical or subtropical regions of the
Bipedalism Approximately 350 million years ago, hominids acquired the characteristic of bipedalism, that is, walking upright, on two feet. Evidence ranging from 4 to 3 million years ago help us to better understand how and why this acquired characteristic took place. Keeping in mind however, that mostly all primates can sit or stand up straight and many can even walk upright, although not for long, the differences in fossil records are minor yet crucial pieces of evidence. Early hominid fossils resemble those of modern day monkeys, however, with more fossils and evidence found, we see the structure change in their bodies. Early footprints evidencing a convergent toe and well-developed arches were found at Laetoli, on a paleosurface tuff dated to 3.56 ±0.2 mya (Jacobs).
Vocabulary: Guns, Germs, and Steel Chapter 1 Protohumans: prehistoric primate, resembling humans Australopithecus: fossil bipedal primate with apelike and human characteristics Refutation: evidence that helps to establish the falsity of something Homo erectus: extinct species of hominid that lived in most of the Pleistocene epoch Neanderthals: extinct species of human that was widely distributed in ice-age Europe Cro-Magnon: common name that has been used to describe the first early modern humans Aesthetic: concerned with beauty Anatomical: relating to bodily structure Anthropologist: study of humankind Hybridization: combining two complementary single-stranded DNA or RNA molecules Chapter 2 Moriori: indigenous people of the Chatham Islands
In the Shadow of Man Review In the Shadow of Man was first published in 1971 by anthropologist Jane Goodall. This was Jane’s first book on the chimpanzees. Unlike most manuscripts of primates this novel observes them in their own habitat. Goodall’s purpose of this book is to underscore the similarities of social behavior between humans and chimpanzees. “The amazing success of man as a species is the result of the evolutionary development of this brain which has led, among other things, to tool-using tool making, the ability to solve problems by the my striking ways in which the chimpanzees biologically resembles man lies in the structure of the brain.” Jane Goodall (239).