History midterm paper In what ways did the American Exchange shape the modern world between 1500 and 1800? The voyages of historical European explorers in the early modern era between 1500 and 1800 resulted in short and long term consequences in both the Eastern and Western hemispheres. The diffusion of plants, food crops, human populations, disease pathogens, and animals changed the world’s biological fabrication for the first time since the continental drift. In 1492 Christopher Columbus stepped foot in the Americas with the desire to obtain basic resources, food, and land. The Europeans introduced the Americas to crops of wheat, barley, rice, and turnips, although these crops had little effect on the new world.
Christian describes life as “a new form of complexity” (xxiv). How did oxygen and photosynthesis cause life to begin on Earth? 3. Eventually, multi-celled organisms emerged from water, to land, and eventually (about 7 million years ago) into human ancestors. What were some stages in the development to our species, homo sapiens?
Free range and cattle caused the problem of the dust bowl 5) How is Svobida’s account similar to and different from Henderson’s letter? They both once had wonderful lush land to farm but then got progressively worse trying to farm food Document C: Government Report 1) What kind of document is this? When was it written? Why was it written? A letter written to the president on august 27,1936 by Morris
The Ainu, however, maintain hunting and gathering as a primary means, agriculture is only to supplement their diet. It is arguable that some Jomon made life changes and took on agriculture while intermixing with the new migrants who brought this knowledge from mainland, Asia, the Yayoi. The intermixing of Yayoi and Jomon is believed to be what modern Japanese are. As political tides change throughout time the Ainu were washed to the bottom of a modernizing society and pressed to move north. “In any event it seems clear that the Yayoi people are the descendents of the vast majority of present-day Japanese.
Art of the Paleolithic Art of the Paleolithic The Paleolithic Period, which is Greek for “Old Stone Age”, is the earliest period in human history. Today, the Paleolithic is divided into three categories, the first being the Lower Paleolithic (between 2.5 million – 200,000 BCE). During this time, our ancestors, such as Homo erectus and Homo ergaster, lived in nomadic groups and began making the first stone tools. The second Paleolithic category is the Middle Paleolithic (200,000 – 45,000 BCE), marked by the first Homo sapiens sapiens beginning to develop modern behaviors: more sophisticated tools, hunting, and the start of symbolic/ritualistic behavior. By the Upper Paleolithic (ending approximately 10,000 BCE), Neanderthal man had disappeared completely, and our ancestors were exhibiting fully modern behaviors such as making a wide range of even more sophisticated tools out of stone, bone, and ivory; hunting and fishing; and creating various forms of art such as figures and cave paintings.
Katherine Snapp Anthropology 3 15 February 2012 Unit 5 question 6 Reconstructing Past Humans’ Diet Food production is a major part of culture today, as it was in the past. Archaeologists can study the diets of past humans by studying plant and animal remains (Monroe 2/7/2012). By studying the plant and animal remains, archaeologist can begin to construct an idea of the types of food past humans ate and grew (Monroe 2/7/2012). Insight into the diets of past humans, and frequencies of plants grown over time are very helpful in giving archaeologists an idea of when humans actually shifted away from the hunter gatherer lifestyle, and started farming and herding (Monroe 2/7/2012). This is done through careful techniques in the fields of zooarchaeology, the study of animal remains from sites, and paleoethnobotany, the study of the remains of plants (Monroe 2/7/2012).
Nearly a century ago from today, the ford Model-T (collectively known as Tin Lizzie) was designed and manufactured to run on either petrol or a corn-based fuel called ethanol. Even before that, in 1897, Rudolph Diesel demonstrated that engines could run on peanut oil with his fundamental engine design. Today, following an eight-decade detour in the petroleum age, biofuels are back, fuelled by a powerful combination of advancing technologies, rising environmental concerns, farmer support, and soaring oil prices. An investigation into alternative fuels has been prioritized to develop a renewable source of energy capable of supplementing fossil fuels after their depletion, while also having minimal environmental effects. Within today’s society, there is a growing understanding of the problems related to fuel products.
To better understand our history of evolution we will have to go back three point two million years ago where one of the first species of upright walking apes or hominids were discovered. Lucy, a female Australopithecus afarencis is well known for being part of the earliest species of hominids and was discovered containing forty-seven out of two hundred six bones in a full skeleton. During Lucy’s time the Earth’s plates were shifting causing the environment and climate to change. The rift valleys were forming and the rain forests were dying. In this new environment they found it more efficient to move about on two legs.
The foundation of the field of geology itself in the middle of the nineteenth century paved the way for archaeology. Previous to scientists such as Cuvier, Smith, Hutton, and Lyell (page 7), the world was thought to be only 6,000 years old in the Western world. With the conscious decision by scholars to examine the natural world as a conglomerate of observable forces, scientists began to notice anomalies in geologic excavations. Things like manmade tools located near deposits of extinct animal skeletons questioned the traditional chronology of contemporary knowledge. In 1959 the scientists Sir Joseph Prestwich and John Evans studied these anomalies and popularized in the scientific community what is known as the “antiquity of man,” expanding the lifetime of humanity to be much older than most common folk imagined at the time (page 9).
How far were Mao’s agricultural policies responsible for the scale of the great famine in China? The collectivisation programme Mao had established in 1956 aimed to massively increase agricultural and industrial production yet instead it is argued that it led to the worst famine in China’s history. A variety of reasons were cited for the famine most notable were the poor weather conditions, deliberate policy and Lysenkoism, though perhaps the most significant of all was indeed Mao’s policy of collectivisation. Mao’s collectivisation policy had been seen to compliment his industrialisation plans, and to revolutionise Chinese food production. He intended to provide an industrial basis for China by ordering 25,000 strictly regimented communes, thus making agriculture more efficient which would enable more farmers to labour in industry.