sMalcom X versus Martin Luther King Emily Voutes Malcolm X (1925-1965): Even his own name is a stab to the opinions of prejudice white folks during his era. This is true because his own, self declared last name "X" represents "the rejection of slave-names” and the absence of an inherited African name to take its place." Meaning that he was prepared to create a personal identity that represented himself and his race, and not a name that a white man forced upon him. Though they had similar characteristics and morals; his approach to the civil rights movement compared to the strategies of other civil rights leaders of his time, such as Martin Luther King, Jr. differed greatly. Rather than trying to integrate the black community into the white, Malcom X focused on the complete separation of the two races.
Washington preferred a gradual incline of black involvement and acceptance, whereas DuBois preferred immediate direct action. DuBois tried to get African Americans to be involved in politics for this would be the only way their freedoms would be maintained and that could gain influence in society. Carter Woodson states that without political involvement, they would “lose ground in the basic things of life,” (Doc I). DuBois says that the original democratic system does not exist anymore; a caste system replaced it with the white men on top, who try to diminish the civil liberties of those below them, the blacks (Doc F). Dubois’s solution is that African Americans must constantly fight and argue for what they desire in order to ever gain their rights (Doc E).
As “elected president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), he was often seen as a rival to the NAACP. (Royson)” Martin Luther later became part of the NAACP. It was an organization that would help colored people earn their civil rights. His protests were anti-violent, because he believed there was no win through a physical war. The only way to win was with the help of God, because he created man as equal.
This was due to the fact that they shared in the general prejudice of their time and because of the fact that they considered other reforms (such as lower tariffs) to be more important that anti-lynching laws. African American leaders such as Booker T. Washington, W.E.B. Du Bois, and Marcus Garvey strongly disagreed with the opinions and actions of the Progressive era and took action on their own to alleviate poverty and discrimination. A former slave, Booker T. Washington proposed a response to discrimination that was widely accepted by both whites and African Americans in the hostile racial climate of the 1880s and 1890s. In 1881, Washington established the Tuskegee Institute in Tuskegee, Alabama.
He believes we should show appreciation for these people who have suffered for righteousness’ sake. Dr. King exemplified faith in America hoping they will change their perspective of the freed Negro and learn to appreciate the contributions of the Negro. He believed that we will be able to desegregate and intermingle with one another without any issues. Unarmed truth and unconditional love will end this present division, and we as black people should have faith that racism will cease. With faith black people will have courage to face the uncertainties and give us strength to continue on our journey for true autonomy.
Washington’s views on "racial progress" were that offered black acquiescence in disenfranchisement and social segregation if whites would back the idea of black progress in education, agriculture, and economics. Agriculture to Washington was one of the soul ideas of his "racial progress" theory. Washington argued that the focus of African-Americans should be education on a trade so that they could be taught the skills they needed to be able to open up their own businesses. That would lead to African-Americans to create jobs for other African-Americans. Washington felt blacks shouldn’t worry about winning civil rights, but rather have some kind of economic stability first.
The Constitution, until recently, did not apply to blacks; blacks feel they deserve payments from 310 years of slavery, destruction to their minds and culture. Dr. Martin Luther King's dilemma in the United States was of a different kind. He was torn between his identity as a Black man of African descent and his identity as an American. He urged Americans to judge based on the content of the character not by skin color and also believed in non-violent protests. Martin Luther King Jr’s main perspective during the fight on racism was equality.
Washington recognized the resistance that white America instinctively felt toward any form of radical racial reforms. Although his strategy did not produce many immediate rewards for blacks at the time, it was important in the long run. W.E.B DuBois stood in sharp contrast to Washington’s attempts at working within the system. DuBois looked at the
Malcolm X's approach to attaining freedom for African Americans was almost impossible. He wanted to separate blacks from whites, and have African Americans be the first class citizens. He basically wanted a kind of elevated segregation. He demonstrates this in this quote "When white people are evenly divided, and black people have a bloc of votes of their own, it is left up to them to determine who's going to sit in the White House and who's going to be in the dog house. " Martin Luther King Jr. approach to attaining freedom for African Americans was through peaceful protest.
The black power movement hindered from the blacks to achieve their aim more then it helped them. Although some campaigns such as the NAACP welcomed black and white members arguing that co-operation would make the movement stronger, there were other groups that prevented the blacks from achieving their aim and gaining rights because black movement groups such as the Nation Of Islam and SNCC introduced the use of self-defence, heritage not to work with whites and criticism which hindered the black civil rights. One reason why the black power movement hindered black civil rights was because of the use of self-defence and violence. Malcolm X believed that self-defence was a more powerful weapon than love and forgiveness. He advocated gun ownership for black Americans.