The Misinformation Effect

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The Misinformation Effect Review of research regarding the influence of misinformation on memories 1. Introduction People are influenced by many factors every day. They let other people, magazines, advertisements and more external influences tell them what to do, what to wear, and what to believe. This last matter is an interesting topic. Can we make people believe things that did not happen? Can we change their memories? This paper will review research regarding the influence of misinformation on memories. There are different variables which determine how great the misinformation effect is. These variables are timing, repetition, and framing. It is interesting to see how the influence of misinformation changes by varying the variables. It is important to study this topic because memories are a piece of us humans. It is remarkable that our own memories can be influenced that easily. How reliable are memories when someone or something can change them? Most of the time memories are irrelevant, but when you are an eyewitness in a lawsuit it is very important that your memories are right. If not, the wrong suspect could be convicted. This paper comprises eight sections. Section 2 describes the definition of misinformation, Section 3 treats the factor timing, Section 4 gives all the information about the difference between experiencing a single or a repeated event, Section 5 consists of the information about framing effects, Section 6 treats the criticism on experiments of the past and Section 7 describes the influence of misinformation in practice. Section 8 comprises summary and conclusions. 2. Misinformation 2.1 Definition The definition of misinformation, according to the Oxford Dictionary, is ‘false or inaccurate information, especially that which is deliberately intended to deceive: nuclear matters are often entangled in a web of secrecy

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