Eyewitness accounts provide important evidence that may lead to the identification and arrest of criminal suspects. It is in the trial process that eyewitness testimony is most crucial and is most often correct. However, in some cases, mistaken identification may occur and lead to the wrong conviction of an innocent person. This is due to how the memory retains and processes information after being subjected to traumatic events. It is known that memory functions in different systems which consist of different sub units.
How can the use of mental images, concepts and schemas to organise our thinking help us to improve our memory? Task 1 Part A – Essay Plan • Introduction • Main body: Define mental image, concepts and schemas How do these help to improve memory What evidence is there to support this? • Conclusion Part B In order to make sense of our world we are constantly gathering information and storing it away for recall at another time when we may need it. This is usually an unconscious process however by understanding the processes and ways in which we form memories we can use this to our advantage and therefore improve our memory. This essay will address three different ways that we form memories, mental images, concepts and schemas.
The term ‘Eyewitness testimony’ (or ‘EWT’) refers to an area of research into the accuracy of memory concerning significant events, such as a crime or an accident, and the types of errors usually made in such situations. There are many theories relating to the accuracy of EWT, including the anxiety of the witness, the role of schemas, the use of leading questions, the effects of misleading information and the use of the Cognitive Interview. All these aspects can contribute to or detract from the reliability of EWT, and I intend to outline and evaluate them in this essay. When dealing with EWT, it is important to consider the type of incident involved. Some incidents, such as violent crimes or serious accidents, are synonymous with high levels of anxiety, which can affect the memory encoded, thus affecting the accuracy of the testimony.
Can a person really block memories of traumatic events and then recover the memories, or is this phenomena a case for false memory syndrome? This paper is going to process two differing views on the subject of block and recovered memories, one for and one against the use. The paper will cover the facts as well as opinions presented by both sides and the strengths, weaknesses, and how credible both sides were in the argument. Finally, the paper will select which side the author agrees with more as well as which side contemporary research supports. Facts and Opinions On the con side of the argument is John Kihlstrom who believes that the claims of blocked and recovered memories are nothing more than clinical folklore with no scientific study or evidence to provide proof.
What happens during the reconstruction of the memory may significantly affect its accuracy. False eyewitness memory is the main factor leading to false convictions. The Innocence Project claims that eyewitness misidentification is the single greatest cause of wrongful conviction in the USA, playing a role in more than 75% of convictions that were subsequently overturned through DNA testing. One explanation for the inaccuracy of EWT is that questioning by the police or other officials after a crime may alter witnesses’ perception of the events and thus affect what they subsequently recall. For example some questions may be more ‘suggestive’ than others.
This is the definition of repressed memories used by most researchers. It is also important to note that some researchers refer to repressed memories as “Dissociative Amnesia,” and others as “false memories” due to the fact that they don’t believe the memories are real. This doesn’t mean that these researchers think that people claiming to have repressed memories are liars, only that these people have been implanted with false memories in ways that will be discussed later. Now that repressed memory has been defined and explained it is time to explore its current place in the legal system. Repressed memories are most often used in
Dual-Process Models To fully understand why attitudes change in response to a persuasive message, one must examine two of the most prominent contemporary dual-process models; the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) and Heuristic-Systematic Model (HSM). The ELM and the HSM are cognitive models that refer to how people process information. Both are considered dual-process models because they distinguish between two different cognitive routes to persuasion, and although these models are similar in many ways, they are also different in many ways. Persuasion is used all around us every day in order to influence and change a person's attitude. The factors which most effect persuasion are the source, the message, and the audience (Albarracín & Vargas, 2010).
Running Head: cognitive restructuring theory Cognitive Restructuring Theory Lynn Todd CTU Online CJUS343-1201A-04: Criminology Professor Stacey Haug January 22, 2012 Cognitive restructuring is an expression normally used to define approaches that try to change the way criminals’ reason. We use the phrase “cognitive restructuring” because it is inclined to sound highly educated and better reflected rather than saying, “pondering more helpful decisions”. The term cognition is merely an alternative word for thought (Strayhorn, 2003). Although cognitive restructuring has relevance in areas other than the therapy of criminals, its precise objective in a criminal perspective is the deterrence of impending potential criminal behavior. Cognitive restructuring techniques commonly center on producing a confident self-image, encouraging constructive social interactions, and removing thought deformations (mistakes in reasonableness or points of view).
Content theory explains why human needs change with time. Another theory that attempts to explain human behavior is Process theory. Content theory includes the work of David McClelland, Abraham Maslow and other psychologists as they attempted to explain why human needs change, but not how they change. Content theories explain the specific factors that motivate people. In other words, they answer the question What drives behaviour?
The theory’s hypothesis and its core conceptions clearly express the importance of information processing and nonverbal messages. Also, this theory improves our understanding of how expectations influences conversational distance and it reveals what takes place in the minds of communicators and how they observe nonverbal performance during their conversation. EVT was originally called the “Nonverbal Expectancy Violation Theory”, but Burgoon later removed the word nonverbal because the theory now inspects issues further than the field of nonverbal communication. Proxemics is what we call the study of a person’s use of space as a special elaboration of culture and it includes the way people use space in their conversations as well as perceptions of another’s use of space. In this theory, it provides the two competing needs of a human which are personal space and affiliation.