A Short History of Reconstruction By: Eric Forner Book Review The Short History of Reconstruction by Eric Foner gives insight about the years after the Civil War and the Reconstruction of America. This book covers the time span of the entire Reconstruction and spans from the end of the Civil War to just before the 1900’s. It focuses more on the South’s Reconstruction than the North, because the war had a greater and more identifiable effect in the South. One of the most widespread complications of the Reconstruction that Forner discusses was the lack of housing and jobs for the newly freed blacks. A great contributor to this issue was racism among the white population.
In the Cornel West article "Nihilism in Black America" he argues that the dilemma of African Americans is nihilism. This is somewhat parallel to W.E.B Dubois's Talented Tenth speech in 1903. Nihilism, according to West, is the lived experience of coping with a life of horrifying meaninglessness, hopelessness, and lovelessness. African Americans are threatened by the lack of hope and the “absence of meaning” in their lives. Dubois's philosophy not only shows nihilism in the black race during this era but it also shows the same lack of progression in the black community in 2011.
Malcolm x, one of the leaders of the nation of Islam, his ideas were opposed to those of martin Luther king and as African Americans lost faith in peaceful protests it led to the rise of black power. Many people were dissatisfied with Martin Luther King’s tactics therefore in the 1960s different black power movements rose such as the Nation of Islam and the Black Panthers. The black power movement came to an end in the 1970s despite achieving not as much for the black people in the north; it did however build their confidence and self-esteem. Elijah Muhammad, the leader of the Nation of Islam, believed in a strong moral code, self-discipline. He encouraged black men to find dignity in hard work and to disapprove the illegal world of gambling, drinking, prostitution and drugs.
Some local groups took part in lynchings, attacks on private houses and public property, and other violent activities. Members used ceremonial cross burning to intimidate victims and demonstrate its power. Murders and violence by the Klan were most numerous in the South, which had a tradition of lawlessness. The name Ku Klux Klan has since been used by many independent groups opposing the Civil Rights Movement and desegregation, especially in the 1950s and 1960s. Today, researchers estimate there may be more than 150 Klan chapters with 5,000-8,000 members nationwide.
Civil rights was the most important reform during 1945 and 1980. The civil rights movement was a movement fighting for African-Americans equality, privileges, and rights. The Movement was centered around the injustice of African -Americans in the South. African American faced racial inequality, lack of economic opportunity, and unfairness in the political and legal processes. In the late 19th century, state and local governments imposed restrictions on voting qualifications which left the African community economically and politically powerless and passed segregation laws, known as Jim Crow laws.
The first Klan was founded in 1865 in Pulaski, Tennessee, as a terrorist organization by veterans of the secret army. They named it after the Greek word 'kuklos", which means circle. The name means "Circle of Brothers. Klan groups spread throughout the South as an insurgent movement. the new organization consist White League and the Red Shirts, started a fresh round of violence aimed at suppressing blacks black voting and running Republicans out of office'.
When these soldiers left in 1877, many state governments chose to persecute black people and limit their rights. Despite the laws of the federal government, they soon took away black people’s rights to vote. Last but not least the systems of sharecroppers spent more than their share was worth and fell heavily into
While the legal systems of the northern states were not as fair toward African American rights, the prejudice among the populace was as a criminal act . White laborers complained that African Americans were flooding the employment market and lowering wages. Most new migrants found themselves segregated by practice in run down urban slums. The largest of these was Harlem. Writers, actors, artists, and musicians glorified African American traditions, and at the same time created new
They returned home to find that racism was part of everyday life. Between 1915-1922 more than 430 black Africans where lynched. The Jim Crow laws were state and local laws in the United States enacted between 1876 and 1965 .These where laws discriminating the black Americans. The laws segregated blacks in schools, parks, hospitals, swimming pools, libraries and other public places, Black found it extremely hard to get fair treatment. They were also denied access to good jobs and a reasonable education and where even banned from voting.
Some black males were not allowed to vote, while others lost employment opportunities. These harsh laws followed up underneath the Fugitive Slave Law. The constant undermining view of African Americans being inferior to white people in every way continued to spread throughout the northern states. During 1820-1860, the American society was very selfish. The average American focus was not on the inhumane treat against the black people but the competiveness that was caused because of the black people.