Linda Brown became the centre of a Kansas court case demanding an end to segregated schooling. A lawyer for the NAACP (National Assoc. for the Advancement of Coloured People) took the case before the Supreme Court and on the 17th May 1954, the Chief justice overturned the ‘Separate but Equal’ policy on grounds of inferiority and unequal facilities. This set in motion the start of change for African Americans. Rosa Parks, a former NAACP secretary, was arrested in 1955 for refusing to give up her seat on the bus to a white man.
Barbara A. Sherrod May 8, 2013 Dr.Carr ENG356 Final Essay Exam To kill a mockingbird will always be noted as the novel that not only aided in changing society but showcasing the inability for the minority to speak and have action. To Kill a Mockingbird was first published in 1960, surrounded in the rural south it showcased how the minority; women, blacks and children fully aware of themselves and those around them did not have a voice. Maycomb County accused of raping a young white woman. Although both Tom Robinson and Mayella Ewell were allowed to say their sides of the story on the stand they weren’t allowed to really share their story without the help of the lawyers. When the reader is first introduced to the situation between Tom Robinson and Mayella Ewell the story is told in black in white.
In 1951, the father of a black student named Linda Brown sued the Board of Education because a white school had prevented Brown from attending a school which was only seven blocks away, compared to the segregated black school she was attending which was more than seven blocks away from her home. Despite losing the first legal battle, Brown’s father did not give up. He found help from the NAACP, a prominent civil rights organisation which appealed on his behalf to the Supreme Court of USA. Following the appeal, in May 1954, Chief Justice Earl Warren declared the US Constitution to be ‘colour-blind’ and therefore ordered the Topeka Board of education to end segregation in its schools. This was one of the first major steps in the civil rights movement.
What were the causes and the consequences of the protest at Central High School, Little Rock, Arkansas? There were a number of reasons why nine African-American students decided to attempt to enter Central High School in Arkansas in September, 1957. Consequences that lead up to this event was the Brown vs. Board of Education in Topeka, Kansas in 1954, which lead to the demand for integration. In response to this the ‘Southern Manifesto’ which was signed by congressmen opposed to integration in schools. After this, the National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People decided to encourage integration by sending nine Africa-American students to attend Central High when it opened for the school year of 1957.
The Montgomery Bus Boycott The Montgomery Bus Boycott was an event in which African Americans refused to ride city buses in Montgomery, Alabama, to protest segregated seating. It took place on the 5th December 1955, to December 20th 1956, and it is regarded as the first large-scale demonstration against segregation in U.S. On December 1, 1955, four days before the boycott began, Rosa Parks, and African-American woman, refused to yield her seat to a white man on a Montgomery bus. She was arrested, found guilty, and fined $10. The boycott of public buses by blacks in Montgomery began on the day of Parks’ court hearing and lasted 381days. The U.S Supreme Court ultimately ordered Montgomery to integrate its bus system.
Brown v. Board of Education (1954) By: Breanna Clifton Date: March 1, 2013 Mr. Trim US Government D5 Brown v. Board of Education is associated with the Board of Education in Topeka Kansas where the case was first filed. However the class action suit was really a consolidation of four other case from different parts of the country grouped together under the same name. The Supreme Court`s opinion in the Brown v. Board of Education case of 1954 legally ended decades of racial segregation in America`s public schools. Originally named after Oliver Brown the first of many plaintiffs listed in the other case of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka Ks the landmark decision actually resolved six separate segregation case from four sates consolidated under the name Brown v. Board of Education.
Her father tried to get her into a white school, which was only seven blocks away, but the principle of the school refused to allow her to enroll. Brown went to the head of Topeka’s NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) and asked for his help. The NAACP was all eager to help the Browns in their case against the school because they wanted to take on segregation in schools for quite some time. The case was described as, “the right plaintiff at the right time.” By 1951, with other black parents joining the cause, the NAACP pushed for an injunction to end segregation in Topeka’s public schools. When the U.S. District Court for the District of Kansas heard their case, the NAACP argued that segregated schools gave the message to black children that they weren’t equal, and naturally inadequate.
Its main objective was to try an end the political disenfranchisement of African Americans in the Deep South. As a result, the three organizations worked hard to establish Freedom Schools, providing education for African American children. Freedom Schools were often targets of white mobs as well as homes of local African Americans involved in the campaign. That summer 30 black homes and 37 black churches were firebombed. Over 80 volunteers were beaten by white mobs or racist police officers and three men, James Chaney, Andrew Goodman and Michael Schwerner, were murdered by the Ku Klux Klan on 21st June, 1964.
I believe the Montgomery bus boycott was the most important event in the 1950s -1960s in changing the civil rights for African-Americans, because this event gained internationally attention. On the 1st of December 1955 a white man requested for Rosa Parks’ seat however she refused as it seemed unreasonable. Leading her to be arrested, this act was very important because it went against the Jim Crow which was created to force segregation in public school systems, kept many African-Americans from moving out of segregated neighbourhoods and often made it difficult for African-Americans to vote. Overall it was very unfair to the black community, as a result the black community in Alabama started a non-violent boycott of the buses, leaving buses only half full this had a major financial impact on bus companies as it was the black community who used buses the most and the event was lead by Martin Luther King. This event was important because it gained international attention which put pressure on the different structures of the American government to make changes, and finally in 1965 the Supreme Court ruled that segregation on buses was illegal.
They also had to use the back door when shopping. Schools were segregated and Jefferson always thought that the black school was not equal in conditions of quality. Jefferson was twelve years old during Bloody Sunday and she and her older sister marched in it. She remembers the troopers using high pressure fire hoses, police dogs, and tear gas on the protesters.They were chased and beat with clubs. Jefferson was shocked and terrified the entire time.