Africa contained a great number of natural rescources valuable to Europe such as: cotton, palm oil, rubber, ivory, gum, peanuts, bananas, coffee, cocoa, zinc, lead, coal, and copper. These valuable raw materials were used to create products that Europe could export and trade for a huge profit. These products included: fabrics, soaps, candles, tires, drugs, food products, electrical wiring, electrical insulation, rope and twine, jewelry, and many others. The invasion of Africa yielded many valuable economic advancements, and created a logical reason for Europe to invade. European imperialism in Africa was partly due to rivalries between the different European countries involved, with Britain, Germany and France the dominant powers.
Nkrumah was in doubt about true independence and because of that, he wrote on neocolonialism. Neocolonialism is a condition where a country may be politically independent and still be economically dependent on other states. He also was involved in Pan-Africanism, and felt that Africa needed more development and African needed political unification of its countries. Nkrumah had an idea of an African Federation and it did not succeed. There was then the OAU Organization of African Unity.
For more than three centuries the European nations had extended their influence and imperialism into other continents such as Asia, Latin America, the West Indies, and Africa. This was possible because these European nations were relatively economically and militarily stronger than the people of other continents. The Scramble and Partition of Africa The scramble for Africa, also known as the Race for Africa, was the rush or hurry for African territories by European powers. These European powers rushed for African territories due to several reasons. These causes can be categorized into economic,
Finally, from analyzing these interactions between the Europeans and the natives, it can be seen that the Europeans, to some extent, thought of themselves as superior to the natives they encountered. Through most of the explorations that occurred, trade was the outcome of the economic relationship that was developed between the natives and the explorers. For most of the 15th century, when Africa was being explored, slaves were a commodity. In The Atlantic Crucible, Armesto made this evident, “The economy was geared to slaving, raiding the African coast…” (Armesto, p. 183). Armesto also said, “It was necessary to continue the search further south, and to exploit the chief resource of the region: slaves” (Armesto, p. 193).
This need is commonly satisfied through the expansion of power, and in this case, Imperialism. Another common idea throughout history has been that because one nation is more civilized or successful than another, they seem to have the right to champion their ways throughout the world by taking over less powerful nations. The justification for this in Heart of Darkness, as said by Kurtz in his report to the International Society for the suppression of Savage Customs, is that “’by the simple exercise of our will we can exert a power for good practically unbounded’” (Conrad 92). These initial motives brought Europe into Africa, though both ideas set a scene for prejudice and suppression as Europe came to exert their power and obtain
THE POLITICS OF LANGUAGE IN AFRICAN LITERATURE & WORLDVIEW "Is it right that a man should abandon his mother tongue for someone else's? It looks like a dreadful betrayal and produces a guilty feeling. But for me there is no other choice. I have been given the language and I intend to use it." -Chinua Achebe, Author of Things Fall Apart.
That is, one searches for idealism in order to have a better life. An example of improvement is civilization, or bringing civilization to an uncivilized world. In Heart of Darkness, Joseph Conrad sheds light on the idea of bringing civilization to Africa by an idealist called Kurtz. The European community has held meetings to discuss the matter of developing other countries or areas like Africa. Conrad mentions one of the European bands “this devoted band called itself the Eldorado Exploring Expedition” (43).
In the 1920s, a movement known as Pan-Africanism began to nourish the nationalist spirit and strengthen resistance. Pan-Africanism is a movement that seeks to unify African people or people living in Africa, into a "one African community". Differing types of Pan-Africanism seek different levels of economic, racial, social, or political unity. Pan-Africanism as an ethical system traces its origins from ancient times, and promotes values that are the product of the African civilization and the struggles against slavery, racism, colonialism, and neo-colonialism. Pan-Africanism can be seen as a product of the European slave trade.
These and many other questions still remain to be subject of concern to scholars. Colonization of Africa by European countries was a monumental significant in the development of Africa. The Africans took into account the impact of colonization on them to be perhaps the most important factor in understanding the present condition of the African continent and of the African people. Therefore, a close scrutiny of the phenomenon of colonialism is necessary to understand the degree to which it influenced not only the economic and political development of Africa but also the African people’s perception of themselves. This dissertation focuses on the reaction to colonialism from 1900 to 1964 in Northern Rhodesia.
The modernization theory was typically an approach taken by many European writers during the colonial period in order to analyze colonialism. In its modern form, the theory makes a fundamental distinction between two societies identified as traditional (underdeveloped non- West) and modern (developed West). It contends that, modernization can only take place in such societies when “civilization” is imported from Western Europe and North Africa. Pre-colonial African societies were pointed out as static, backward, and unproductive, and thus, needed the intervention of the European colonial rule to develop. Thus, they romanticized what they argued was the extension of supposedly superior European civilization to the colonized areas in Africa.