The first royal dynasty to bring the city-states in Mesopotamia together was the kingdom of Akkadia, followed by a later kingdom of Babylonia. Centuries later the Hittite Empire brought a new concept of multiethnic, multireligious and multilinguistic kingdom. Eventually Assyrian unified all of the Middle East. The cities surrounded by walls with people lived behind the wall, were invaded by people over and over again for centuries. This also led the creation of pessimistic and ferocious religious beliefs.
The Theory Behind Tutankhamen Death Domonick J Davis Hum 111 Professor Erin Chrisman April 29,2013 King Tut was a very young ruler of Egypt and died when he was about 18. He was made famous when his tomb was discovered in 1922. Don't know if he would have been pleased about being the most famous mummy ever. Tutankhamun was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th dynasty (ruled ca. 1332 BC – 1323 BC in the conventional chronology), during the period of Egyptian history known as the New Kingdom.
Long after the end of Egypt's own pyramid-building period, a burst of pyramid-building occurred in what is present-day Sudan, after much of Egypt came under the rule of the Kings of Napata. While Napatan rule was brief and ceased in 661 BC, the Egyptian influence made an indelible impression, and during the later Sudanese Kingdom of Meroe (approximately in the period between 300 BC–300 AD) this flowered into a full-blown pyramid-building revival, which saw more than two hundred indigenous, but Egyptian-inspired royal pyramid-tombs constructed in the vicinity of the kingdom's capital cities. Al-Aziz Uthman, son of the great Saladin who crushed the Crusaders, tried to demolish
Eventually, under the leadership of ambitious chieftains or princes they seized control of the delta city of Avaris and turned into their stronghold. The Egyptians referred to these people as hikau-khoswet (rulers of foreign lands) and this is where the name Hyksos originated. For around 45 years they gained control over lower Egypt and in c. 1640, a Hyksos chieftain named Salatis forced the Egyptian ruler out of Memphis. For about 100 years, two dynasties of these foreign kings ( fifteenth and sixteenth) controlled Egypt as far south as Cusae. The seventeenth dynasty of Egyptians princes from Thebes continued to rule in semi-independence but paid allegiance and tribute to the Hyksos kings in the north.
James Villard June 13, 2012 The great empires of western civilizations rose and fell over the periods of time. The Egyptian empire saw a great rise in power around 2025 B.C.E. with the beginning of the Middle Kingdom founded by the warrior Thebes. The middle kingdom pharaohs were different from the past rulers. The middle kingdom focused their work force on economical and infrastructural matters rather than the construction extravagant tombs.
His father Intef III had undertaken multiple war campaigns, which eventually resulted in Egypt’s split into upper and Lower Egypt. This dramatically weakened the central power of Egypt leaving the empire divided and in many places civilization receded. Each half was ruled by competing dynasties; The Theban in Upper Egypt based at Thebes, and Heracleopolitan in Lower Egypt based at Heracleopolis. There is very little evidence of Mentuhotep I, but it can be surmised that he was born into a time of conflict, where politics was war and only the strong survived. He led military campaigns south into Nubia, which had gained its independence during the First Intermediate Period.
The buildings of the central government were typically open-air temples constructed of wood or sandstone. The earliest hieroglyphs appear just before this period, though little is known of the spoken language they represent. In about 3600 BC, Egyptian society along the Nile River began to grow and advance rapidly toward civilization.  A new and distinctive pottery, which was related to the pottery of the Southern Levant, appeared during this time. Extensive use of copper became common during this time.
HISTORICAL PROGRESSION As the word itself implies, civilization starts when mankind started to establish settling units, called ‘cities’ and adopted a new way of living in those places. The history of the first cities in Anatolia dates back to years 7.000 BC. The excavations in the Hacilar Tumulus (near today’s Burdur in Mediteranian region of Turkey) have shown that the civilization in this place is even older than Mesopotamia. Among the historians, it is a generally accepted fact that during the Neolithic and Khalkolithic ages, this region was the most developed region of the world. Then, starting with the years of 3.000 BC, Mesopotamia and Egypt, with the effect of inventing and using the alphabet, made big progress in trade activities and succeeded to go ahead of Anatolia.
The Mycenaean civilization was discovered by Heinrich Schliemann through excavations in Mycenae in 1876 and in Tiryns in 1884 (Carver). Figure 1: W.W. Norton & Company, Ralph's World Civilizations, Chapter 4 http://www.wwnorton.com/colleges/history/ralph/resource/greece.htm Although the Mycenaean civilization began in 1550 BC, the occupation of Achaeans or Mycenaeans of many areas of the Greek peninsula, especially the coastal areas, started in 2000 BC. The Mycenaean civilization was the Late Helladic civilization in 1550 BC, but after the volcanic eruption at Thera in 1500 BC, the Mycenaean civilization at Knossos began in 1450 BC. This was followed by the destruction of Knossos in 1380 BC and a revival and further development of Mycenaean architecture in 1350 until 1250 BC. During the revival of architecture, the Mycenaeans became “wealthy and powerful” and “the most powerful group in the Aegean world” (Carver).
SUMERIAN CIVILIZATION The Sumerian civilization originated around 4000 BC and went on until 1450 BC when the Hittites took control of the region. Mesopotamia, the land between the rivers Tigris and Euphrates, was located in what is now Southern Iraq. This territory, when skillfully irrigated, offered a fertile settlement for the arousal of cities. Sumerian cities had self-government and they were independent. Therefore, each city state had its own deities, kings, laws and culture.