The Hyksos Essay

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The Hyksos Origin of the name * The Hyksos rulers of the fifteenth dynasty of Egypt were of non-Egyptian origin. Most archaeologists describe the Hyksos as a mix of Asiatic peoples, suggested by recorded names such as Khyan and Sakir-Har that resemble Asiatic names, and pottery findings that resemble Palestinian pottery. * The name Hyksos was used by the Egyptian historian Manetho (ca. 300 BCE), who, according to the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus (1st century CE), translated the word as “king-shepherds” or “captive shepherds.” Josephus himself wished to demonstrate the great antiquity of the Jews, and thus identified the Hyksos with the Hebrews of the Bible. Geographical Control * The Hyksos first appeared in Egypt c.1800 BC, during the eleventh dynasty, and began their climb to power in the thirteenth dynasty, coming out of the second intermediate period in control of Avaris and the Delta. * By about 1720 BC, they had grown strong enough, at the expense of the Middle Kingdom kings, to gain control of Avaris in the northeastern Delta. (SHOW ON MAP) * This site eventually became the capital of the Hyksos kings, but within 50 years, they had also taken control of the important Egyptian city of Memphis.(SHOW ON MAP) * The Hyksos never really ruled Egypt completely. Though the ruler of Avaris claimed to be King of Upper and Lower Egypt, we know from the discovery of burials from that may have been a result of a massive plague and records dating to the 17th Dynasty king Kamose, show that Cusae, a little further south, was actually the specific boarder point.(SHOW ON MAP) The Invasion / Gaining Power * These Hyksos melted easily into Egyptian society at first as nomads would. Eventually they became very powerful and increased in population. Inevitably, they took over Northern Egypt in entirety and imposed one of their own as the
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