The History of English Essay

5282 WordsJan 14, 201422 Pages
15. Palatal mutation/ I - UmlautMutation - change of a vowel under the influence of a vowel in the following syllable.Palatal mutation (6th -7ih century, effected all Germanic languages except Gothic) fronting and rising of vowels under she influence of sounds [i, j| in the following syllable. λ | | | o | e | Baddi-bedd | ǽ | | | ā → ǽ | dails→dǽlon (dead) | ō/ǒ → ē/ĕ | motjan→metan (meet) | ū/ŭ (OE new sound) → ŷ | Fulljan –fylan (fill) | Ēā/ĕă → īē/ĭĕ | Ealdira – ieldra (elder) | Ēō/ĕǒ→ īē/ĭĕ | | Consequences. 5) [I, j] disappeared but caused the doubling of the consonant. 2) New vowels appeared; y, īē/ĭĕ. Traces of I-Umlaut in Modem English. Irregular plural of nouns (man - men, tooth - teeth). - Irregular verbs and adjectives (told - tell, sold - sell, old - elder). 3) Word formation (long - length, strong - strength, blood - Weed), New diphthongs: [Ie] —> [I] OE ex: liehtung —ME lights. [eÞ] -» [e] OE ex: heate -» herte (ME) [e۸.] —[ǽ] OE ex: east — eest (ME) | 12The OE noun had the grammatical categories of Number and Case which, were distinguished in an elaborate system of declensions. homonymous forms in the OE noun paradigms neutralised some of the grammatical oppositions; similar endings employed in different declensions — as well as the influence of some types upon other types — disrupted the grouping Of nouns into morphological classes, increased variation of die noun forms in the late 10th c. and especial ly in the 11th and 12th c. testifies to impending changes and to a strong tendency toward a rearrangement and simplification of the declensions. The number of variants of grammatical forms in the 11th and 12th c. was twice as high as in the preceding centuries. Among the variant forms there were direct descendants of OE forms with phonetically weakened endings and also numerous analogical forms taken over from other parts of the

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