Hazards are complex. They all vary in effects however generally; a hazard is anything that could cause damage to humans or buildings. Many volcanic and seismic events happen, cause hazards to humans. Volcanic and seismic events can take place all over the world and therefore both more economically developed countries (MEDCs) and less economically developed countries (LEDCs) can be affected. In the last 30 years there have been multiple examples of where volcanic and seismic events have had an impact on both MEDCs and LEDCs.
Analyse the factors that cause differences in the hazards posed by volcanoes around the world (40 marks) A hazard is a situation that poses a level of threat to life, health, property or environment, all of which can be compromised by a volcano. A volcanic eruption can cause many deaths, illnesses, destruction of property, crops, and livestock, also the economy of an area may be affected, amongst other things. However, there are many factors involved which can cause differences in the severity of destruction caused by a volcano such as, settlement, monitoring, plate boundaries and the economic status of a country; which would be different for every single volcano around the world. One factor that would cause differences in the hazards posed by volcanoes is settlement, which includes where people chose to live in relation to a volcano. For example, in Indonesia many people settle near Mount Merapi because of the rich and fertile soil favoured for farming.
To what extent can preparedness and planning mitigate the effects of volcanic hazards? (40 marks) Volcanic activity happens across the surface of the globe and naturally hazards occur too. A hazard is a situation that poses a level of threat to life, health, property, or environment. It is easy to locate volcanoes, but it is very difficult to predict exactly when activity will take place, particularly a major eruption, this makes it difficult to prepare or plan for one. There is a very big difference that helps prepare for a volcanic hazard and that is whether you are in a MEDC or a LEDC.
Scientists have since seen these patterns as precursory to eruptions at many other volcanoes, including the 2004-2008 eruption of Mount St. Helens. At Mount St. Helens the value of an extensive system of seismic sensors has greatly improved our ability to determine the location and depth of earthquakes, and our ability to understand the physics of magma systems underground. The lack of short-term seismic or other geophysical indications in the hours and days prior to the May 18, 1980, debris avalanche, as well as prior to many short discrete explosions both before and after May 18, underscores that fact that scientists and public officials will not always have warning sufficient to issue short-term predictions of impending eruptive activity. Today, seismic
Non-explosive eruptions tend to produce mostly lava flows, which do not represent a particularly serious hazard to people, however they will destroy farmland and buildings. Ash clouds are explosive eruptions that blast solid and molten rock (called tephra or pyroclastics) into the air with tremendous force. Ash clouds pose a considerable threat to aircraft, can cause buildings to collapse and can also cause death by asphyxiation. Pyroclastic flows are a potential product of volcanic activity; clouds of incandescent gas, ash and rocks with temperatures up to 800°C and speeds of over 200kph. They can cause widespread destruction, such as the 1980 eruption of Mt St Helens.
“residents exhibited a ‘disturbingly high rate of miscarriages ... Love Canal can now be added to a growing list of environmental disasters involving toxics, ranging from industrial workers stricken by nervous disorders and cancers to the discovery of toxic materials in the milk of nursing mothers.’ (Love Canal). All of the people deserved a very safe environment to live in, but there were much too many toxic chemicals that were once underground. As you can see Love Canal’s land doesn’t look like a very safe place to start a community. If you think
Hoses can be undone, gaskets can fail, pits leak and liquids always hit the ground, repeatedly in large quantities. Fracking needs a lot of work to be done before it can begin obtaining oil. The fracking fluids have a lot of toxic chemicals and become even more contaminated when pumped down a hole as they travel through rock formations before returning to the surface as flow back. The liquids can cause ground contamination and even in small portions can contaminate shallow aquifers with hydrocarbons, toxic chemicals, heavy metals and radioactive
Lima, Peru Adversity can make a negative or positive impact on people’s lives. It really depends on how people take adversity. I agree with Horace’s assertion that adversity plays a positive role in the lives of various individuals because, Lima, Peru has faced many earthquakes but still have recovered and not let the natural disaster bring them down. Lima, Peru ‘s relative location is close to the coast and it’s relative location is east of Africa, North of North America and northeast from Europe. Peru has faced many earthquakes; Earthquakes form by plate tectonics rubbing against each other and because of all the earthquakes that happen in Lima Peru they have to really work hard and not let the natural disasters keep them from fighting
Personal misfortune through injury or death decrease the size and eminence of work in the labor force. Also damage to buildings and equipment used on a daily reduce the amount of investment needed to provide goods and services. Natural disasters often destroy people’s possessions while also contaminating air and water, killing fish and wildlife, and damage’s other natural assets. Likewise, “U.S. Gulf Coast, a major producer of oil for much of the nation.