Different groups of sociologists have devoted time in studying and analysing the family, however different types of sociologists share different views over the functions performed for individuals and society. Functionalist see society as an interrelated whole. To functionalists every institution in society performs one or more important functions or jobs and the sociologist has to determine what these functions are. Many functionalists look at the good things in family life, the two functionalists I am focusing on are Murdock and parsons, both of these share similar views on the family. Murdock believed that the nuclear family was a universal institution that was vital to the well being of all societies and stated that the family's primary purpose is for sexual, reproductive, economic, and educational.
The functionalist perspective recognises that families perform vital functions for their members and for their society, to ensure stability and harmony in order to achieve social order (Giddens, 2009). Functionalists say that society is held together by social consensus, in which members of the society agree upon, and work together to achieve, what is best for society as a whole. Emile Durkheim suggested that social consensus takes one of two forms, one of which is Mechanical Solidarity – the sense of togetherness within a society
Within Sociology the family is defined as a primary social group that consists of parents and their offspring all living together to form a very close social group. This present essay will compare and contrast the difference between four perspectives, these being, the Functionalist, Interactionist, Feminist and the Marxist perspective. The functionalist approach believes that society is a structure of connected parts that work together to maintain a social balance for society. For example they believe that each social institute adds individual functions that are all important to the society. The family for example contributes a lot toward society as it is the main route of reproducing the population and teaching them the important lesson of socialization as they grow.
The scholarly information that contributed to the research allows some factual information that has been proven and deemed true. Though many areas of the Batek of Malaysia can be discussed, in this paper, research will focus on three areas of their lives including, social organization, kinship, and gender relations. There are several important factors of social organization of a foraging society like the Batek of Malaysia, essentially family, kinship, age, gender, and marriage (Nowak & Liard, 2010). These are all topics that lead into examining social relations in detail. “Marriage is a cultural universal, existing in some form in every culture”.
Kinship Organization in the San Society The San society is a foraging society. Family, marriage and kinship, gender, and age are the key principles of social organization in foraging societies. People are related to each other either as consanguine, sharing a common ancestor, or as affine (what we call in–laws) through marriage. The way people are related is important in determining how they behave toward each other (Nowak & Laird, Sec. 3.7, 2010).
Their master, Charles C. Price, once was a kind and giving owner but when he hit hard times financially he turned into angry, short tempered owner. This is complicated further by the fact that his young brother Richard is Ann’s age and often plays with Ann and her brothers in the woods. His wife is no sweet woman to counteract her husband’s
San Tribe and their Kinship System Valery Taylor ANT 101 Prof. Melissa Kirkendall March 27, 2012 San Tribe and their Kinship System One of the historical tribes of Southern Africa, is the San society who have lived for a long time on a land that spans across Zimbabwe, Botswana, Namibia and Angola. San people, are a foraging tribe in Africa, they are band society made up of the nuclear family and extended family. Band society such as the San survive by going where there is numerous amount of food and water. The San people divide their labor between gender just like many other foraging bands. The women care for their children and forge for vegetation and men hunt and provide other skills.
Each relationship has its own purpose. Parental relationship: to raise, teach, guide, love unconditionally, meet basic needs, food and shelter. The parental relationship is the first relational experience; this can affect how future relationships are formed. Friendship: unlike family this is a relationship you can go out and find; you can meet
Social organization, economic organization, and their beliefs and values all coincide and work together to create harmony within the band societies. Social organization is very important to foraging societies like the Mbuti who are a part of band societies, which are small mobile groups of people who travel to various environments as a means of survival. Descent and marriage are the key principles to the existence of the Mbuti, because it helps keep unity between the different families that live amongst each other. The nuclear family bloodline, which are composed of a mother, father, and their offspring, is most commonly used amongst foragers like Mbuti. Patrilineal is the descent that comes from ones ancestry through male procreation, and patrilocal is when young married couples lives with the husband’s parents and raise their children.
Family, Government, Education, Religion and the Legal System are all Institutions that shape our daily lives and influence how we live. Functionalists view society as a system with multiple parts. Each part is vital and must work in conjunction with the other in order for society to function. The need for unity between the Institutions is essential, so compromise is reached by all parties. Consensus provides collective agreement and moral consensus maintains social order and stability.