The Four Stages of Socioemotional Development

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[pic]The Four Stages of Socioemotional Development Theory • [pic]A Description of Erikson's Development Stages for Toddlers Trust Versus Mistrust - Ages 0 to 1 year o In Eriksons first stage of social development, trust versus mistrust, infants require comfort from caregivers to develop a sense of trust towards others and their surroundings. If this comfort is not provided, mistrust will be developed. Autonomy Versus Shame and Doubt - Ages 2 and 3 o Toddlers acquire a sense of independence in their own environments in this stage. This is the stage where children explore and build self-esteem in doing things on their own. According to Erikson, if over-protective parents do not allow toddlers to explore to build autonomy and self-esteem, the toddler experiences shame and doubt. o Sponsored Links ▪ Online Psychology Degree Earn a psychology degree online. Affordable. Accredited. Respected. www.APUS.edu/Psychology Initiative Versus Guilt - Ages 4 and 5 o In this stage, children begin to take initiative in starting complex activities on their own. According to Erikson, If the child is scolded for initiating, guilt ensues. Erikson claims that these guilty feelings are the beginnings of the formation of a child's conscience. Industry Versus Inferiority - Ages 6 to Puberty o School-aged children develop specialties and skills in this stage. They define themselves based on their abilities. Failure at tasks leads to a feeling of inferiority. Identity Versus Role Confusion - Adolescence o This stage is one of the most important of all of Erikson's stages. Adolescents form their own identities and self-images. People can have many identities in this stage, such as daughter, friend, actress and skater.
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