The Foreign Policy of Hatshepsut

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Evaluate the foreign policy of Hatshepsut (15) Throughout Hatshepsut's reign she chose not to pursue active military activity to the extent of her predecessors, with little evidence to support any foreign campaigns for military purposes, suggesting a lack of uprisings particularly from the Nubians. Instead, she concentrated on the internal affairs of Egypt and trading expeditions, most famously being her expedition to Punt. However, other trading expeditions were also recorded and included Byblos and Sinai, as well as Punt. These stimulated a grandoise building program which continued to emphasise the importance of Amun- Re, and came to reflect her innovative religious agenda with the incorporation of new concepts such as the ideology of kingship and the importance of oracles, among more. Hatshepsut's expedition to Punt became one of her most celebrated achievements. Through this expedition, she renewed trading links that had been long neglected, and was done so for the purpose of procuring exotic goods that Egypt lacked, shown through an inscription at her mortuary temple at Deir el- Bahri, 'the ships were laden with costly products of the Land of Punt with its many valuable woods, with very sweet- smelling resin and frankincense, with quantities of ebony and ivory...'. She was seen to dedicate the best produce of Punt to Amun at ipet- isut at Karnak. This was the first time a voyage had been undertaken to Punt in over 500 years, in order to reopen trading routes with inner Africa, opposed to conquest which had been the foreign policy of many of Hatshepsut's predecessors, including Amenhotep 1 and Thutmose 1. This expedition showed the use of the military in a diplomatic role, opposed again, to that of conquest and battle that had been undertaken by her predecessors. It also showed obedience to the will of Amun- Re, as it was commanded through an oracle that

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