Ways of doing so include: measure job performance accurately; describe clearly the rewards that will result from successful performance; describe how the employee’s rewards were based on past performance; provide examples of other employees whose good performance has resulted in higher rewards. In essence, leaders should link
• Reward-personal Goals Relationship (also known as Valence) – The Higher the reward, the higher satisfaction Each factor has its own characteristics that are further defined in below but essentially they boil down to the philosophy that an individual will be motivated to do something, as well as, act a certain way if their actions will benefit themselves. Vroom suggests that individuals are motivated when they believe higher levels of effort will lead to better performance and will be rewarded with desired outcomes (Redmond, 2007). Expectancy theory is classified as a process theory of motivation due to the face that it believes that individual perceptions of their environment and that they act on that environment as a repercussion of their personal expectations (Scholl, 2002). Expectancy probability: The first component of the Expectancy Theory is the Expectancy probability. With the Expectancy probability, it is believed that a person’s performance is based on their experiences.
McClelland and vroom-This theory is simple and it says people are motivated depending on the outcome. This means if an employee doesn’t like the outcome the task is going to produce, then he or she won’t want to complete the task at hand. This theory says to relate rewards to the performance and it is something that the employee would want. This theory says that if an employee is kept happy then the employee will be motivated to work harder. Tesco would not use this method but parts of it such as get Tesco employee rewards that relate to them and their performance Maslow-This theory says that people’s needs have to be met first before an employer can get the best out of their employees.
People with this score tend to approach problems in a methodical manner that maximizes their chances for success. Perfectionistic Style The high score received in this style underscores a significant constraint to personal ad professional development. A high perfectionistic style score means that people tend to have trouble doing their best, even when something positively challenges
Nhan Pham PSY-Motivation and Leadership Week 2 Assignment DS:D00539252 Types of Power An essential part of leadership or management is to influence the people you manage so that they do what you want them to do. The influence of a leader will depend on a variety of factors including their personality and of those around them. The influence of a leader over his followers is often referred to as power. The type of power that I found most effective is Reward Power. This type of influence is created when the leader is able to offer a reward to his followers for completing tasks or behaving in a certain manner.
Furthermore, by lending an empathetic ear and accurately identifying the root cause of problems, the plan builds relevant solutions to meet employee needs, enabling enhanced performance. Another strength is boosting the workplace atmosphere through optimism. The plan has some weaknesses in addition to the above listed strengths. For instance, an approach using emotional intelligence attributes may be perceived as invasive or personal, resulting in employee resistance (Pearman, 2011). Also, some employees may not be capable or willing to transition to a positive mindset.
Motives and Incentives are what drives people to be motivated. A motive is an internal character that is the source for motivation and cause of one's action (Decker, 2010). To better understand a motive, it is the physiological or psychological need within a person. A motive could be a feeling or emotion that pushes an individual to behave a certain way. Motives are associated with incentives.
Bandura explains, “The most effective way of developing a strong sense of efficacy is through mastery experiences” (Bandura, 1994). By performing a task successfully it strengthens our sense of self-efficacy. However, failing to adequately deal with a task or challenge can undermine and weaken self-efficacy. Witnessing other people successfully completing a task is another important source of self-efficacy. According to Bandura, “seeing people similar to oneself succeed by sustained effort raises observers beliefs they too possess the capabilities master comparable activities to succeed” (Bandura, 1994).
It focuses on what the goals are and how they can be achieved. On the other hand, consequentialism is a moral theory that evaluates things like institutions, persons, actions and policies according to their consequences. It measures the outcome and decisions are dependent on potential benefits and the cost of a moral action. It generally focuses on how to attain goals. Consequentialism assumes that if human being would weigh the outcome of their taboos and beliefs, then happiness can be achieved and pain reduced.
(1978) described self-handicapping as obstacle to successful performance that is constructed by a person to protect or enhance self-esteem. Hence, though such obstacle may meddle with the performance of an individual, it allows the person to discount responsibility for failure and rather take credit for achieved success. If one fails, attribution to poor skill can be discounted because of the presence of another potential cause. If one manages to succeed, the attribution to his outstanding ability will increase because good performance emerged despite the presence of an obstacle (Kelly, 1971). In other words, self-handicapping behaviors are designed so that there are desirable attributions for both success and