Aim: To investigate the effects of changing in PH on the activity of enzyme (trypsin). Hypothesis: Alternative hypothesis: As the PH level goes up, the enzyme activity of trypsin will speed up. The following graph is the prediction supporting my hypothesis. Introduction: Biology background (with theories) What are enzymes? Enzymes act as biological catalysts; they make chemical reactions to work quicker and remains unchanged when the reaction finishes.
JUN 24 2011 Aim To find out at what temperature does catalyse enzyme work best in and in what optimum temperature the rate of reaction increases. Theory Enzyme is a substance of protein that helps digest food all around our body. Enzymes have the ability to catalyse reactions in living organisms. Catalyse enzymes are found all around our body especially in our liver. Catalyse enzyme creates hydrogen peroxide in to oxygen and water.
The reason for this is because; this allows the substrate to bind to the active site, which is known as the ‘lock and key model’. The substrate is the key and active site is the lock. No other key will fit into the lock. There are many factors that affect the rate of enzyme activity in the liver, namely, Ph level, and substrate concentration. I chose to do an experiment on ‘How temperature can affect the rate of enzyme activity in the liver?’ Temperature affects the “speeds of the molecules, the activation energy of the catalytic reaction and the thermal stability of the enzyme and substrate.” (2) At different levels of temperature the affects on the enzyme in the liver varies.
Once these two components come together, certain chemical bonds within the substrate molecule change much as a lock is released, and just like the key in this illustration, the enzyme is free to execute its duty once again. Many chemical reactions do proceed but at such a slow rate that their progress would seem to be imperceptible at normally encountered environmental temperature. Consider for example, the oxidation of glucose or other sugars to useable energy by animals and plants. For a living organism to derive heat and other energy from sugar, the sugar must be oxidized (combined with oxygen) or metabolically "burned" However, in a living system, the oxidation of sugar must meet an additional condition; that oxidation of sugar must proceed essentially at normal body temperature. Obviously, sugar surrounded by sufficient oxygen would not oxidize very rapidly at this temperature.
They work best at room temperature around 36-40 C. Introduction For this experiment, I will be looking at how the change in temperature affects the rate of reaction. If the temperature is too high or too low in the water bath the enzymes active site will denature. The best temperature is 37 degrees because this is the natural body temperature which is also called the optimum temperature so the reaction will take place faster. Method * Firstly you have to label a test tube with the temperature that you will be investigating. * Secondly you have to add five drops of phenolphthalein the test tube which you are using.
On the surface of the enzyme is an active site that temporarily binds the reactants or substrates forming an enzyme-substrate complex. The catalytic action of the enzyme then converts the substrate to a product or products. This conversion can take the form of a synthesis (building more complex molecules), a decomposition (splitting of the substrate), an oxidation/reduction (addition or removal of electrons), or an isomerization (rearrangement of atoms within a molecule). When the product or products are released, the enzyme emerges unchanged and available to convert more substrate into more products. Since enzymes can be used again and again, they are effective even at low concentrations.
Among many saccharides, trehalose is distinguished by the significantly high glass transition temperature, Tg in aqueous solutions and is more effective as a protective agent of anhydrophobic organisms. Moreover, it is also well recognized that rheological properties play a role in process design, evaluation and modelling. In fact rheological data are required as an indicator of product quality, for calculation in any process involving fluid flow (e.g. pump sizing, extraction, filtration, extrusion, purification) and for the analyses of flow conditions in food processes such as pasteurization, evaporation, drying and aseptic processing. The concentration and the temperature have an important influence on the flow behaviour of hydrocolloid
Enzymes are proteins that are used to speed up these reactions without being consumed by them. The activity of these enzymes can be altered by changing their environments, such as enzyme specificity (speed only a reaction that contains their substrate), increasing and decreasing temperature, concentration level, or adjusting the pH level. Catalase is a catalyst that digests potent hydrogen peroxide and converts it into H2O and O. It is due to this hydrogen peroxide digesting ability that we used catalase in this experiment. To record the role that environment plays in the reaction of an enzyme, we exposed the enzyme to various changes in temperature, concentration, and pH.
It is based on the manipulation of the solubility at various temperatures. To have an successful recrystallization of the solid, there has to be an ideal solvent meaning the liquid in which the solid or solute is infinitely insoluble at room temperature and infinitely soluble at high temperature. This experiment will determine if the Benzoic acid will truly be soluble in the polar solvent such as water. It will also show the efficiency of the recrystallization process by comparing the experimental and literature values of melting point of the pure benzoic acid. Experimental: The experiment started with measuring the melting point range of impure benzoic acid.
This is what we hope to achieve in this experiment. Procedure/Results In this lab using titration, a basic understanding of acid base equilibrium was established. In the lab potassium permanganate (KMnO4), iron chloride (FeCl₂) and phosphoric acid (H3PO4) are used. To get a basic understanding of acid-base reactions in part 1 the group used 10ml of potassium permanganate (KMnO4), iron chloride (FeCl₂), and phosphoric acid (H3PO4) were used. Most acid base reactions need an indicator.