What is the general purpose of the study? What questions does it raise? This study centers on the concern that children, biological parents, and guardians involved in foster care visitations are inadequately prepared. The Familyconnect tool was designed to enrich visitation amongst foster children and their biological parents, as well improve the relationship between foster and biological parents. This study evaluates the effectiveness of the Familyconnect tool.
Therefore, psychological adjustment encompasses not only the child’s overt displays of behaviour but also the quality of peer relationships and degree of stigmatization experienced by children as well as their inner psychological health, for example, self-esteem and overall mental health (Crowl et al., 2008). Reservations concerning the well-being of children of lesbian or gay parents arise because of the worry that children will be exposed to prejudice because of their family constellation and that this will make them more vulnerable to emotional distress and low self-esteem (Tasker, 2005). Generally, the findings have shown that psychological adjustment does not differ in children raised by same-sex or heterosexual parents. For example, examination of the psychosocial adjustment of children conceived via donor insemination by lesbian and heterosexual mothers demonstrated that children were developing in normal fashion, and that their adjustment was unrelated to their parent’s orientation. Rather, the parent’s self- reported relationship satisfaction was significantly correlated with the child’s well-being (Chan, Raboy & Patterson, 1998).
Discuss the influence of childhood and adolescence on adult relationships Psychologists have identified ways in which experiences in childhood and adolescence tend to influence adult relationships. John Bowlby (1982) was the first to suggest that the attachment styles we develop in early childhood affect future relationships. He said that based on experiences with the primary attachment figure individuals develop an internal working model, which is a cognitive framework of expectations to help understand and interact with the world, including future relationships. Sroufe and Fleeson (1986) elaborated that the internal working model includes the individual’s expectations of emotional experiences, how emotional discomfort is likely to be handled by the individual and the individual’s expectations of how reliable another person is likely to be. Adult relationships are therefore effected by the internal working model according to early attachment styles; this is a concept referred to as the continuity hypothesis, i.e.
In which he offered his hypothesis on attachment and its importance between mother and child. In the following chapters we will explore what exactly he is stating, what is mother love? When he talks about its importance on a ‘child’s mental health’, what assertions is he making and do others agree with him, do they accept his techniques and hypothesis? Bowlby’s report was controversial but it influenced changes within health care, social work and in parenting. His report was influenced by Lorenz’s (1935) ethological studies of imprinting and his subsequent theory that attachment was innate.
Having a caregiving environment of mind-mindedness, a state in which the parents treat their children as independent thinkers, is a necessary condition for the best development of interpersonal interpretive function. Individuals suffering from BPD have an inadequate ability to understand that their reactions and other’s reactions are driven by thoughts, feelings, beliefs, and desires. Attachment trauma is also thought to be part of the history of those with BPD. Attachment theory suggests that early experience with caregivers serves to organize later attachment relationships and has been used to explain the psychopathology of BPD (Fonagy, Target, Gergely, Allen, & Bateman, 2003). Childhood maltreatment studies have offered diverse predictors in the types of childhood maltreatment associated with BPD.
Whilst early theories pertaining to maternal interaction and deprivation can be found in the works of Sigmund Freud, Rene Spitz and Harry Harlow, Attachment Psychologist John Bowlby is largely regarded as the pioneer in the field (Peterson, 2004). Bowlby believed attachment to be an innate adaptive method applied by the child in an attempt to meet primary survival needs (i.e. food, shelter, mental stimulation). In order to secure these primary needs, newborn infants will attempt to form secure attachments to primary caregivers. If secured the child will receive ample attention and have basic needs met.
"A central finding to my research," says Wallerstein, "is that children identify not only with their mother and father as separate individuals but with the relationship between them. They carry the template of this relationship into adulthood and use it to seek the image of their new family." Except in the case of premature death, marriage embarked
They tend to break up repeatedly with the same person, often get emotional and angry. We learn to trust and rely on others as an infant and that influences our relationship as adults. If parents of children this and traded children accordingly we may have adults who grow up to have healthy happy relationships. A child's early caregiver experiences are crucial in setting the stage for that child's ability to maintain intimate relationships in adulthood. A child needs consistent, nurturing caregiving in order to develop a secure base, in which the child feels that it is safe and protected in the world.
I would like to focus on a few separate areas as it relates to broken homes; divorces, single-parent families, and working mothers with children under age 18. The research findings on divorce and delinquency have been mixed. Overall, however, there is general support for the argument that children of divorce are more likely to be delinquent. For example, a 1994 study by Furstenberg and Teitler looks at the effects of marital disruption before and after the actual act of separation through divorce that may influence a child‘s development. They found that in marriages that are disrupted, parents may have higher levels of conflict, be more prone to economic stress and meager parenting practices.
In addition, this essay provides us with some of the effects of substance abuse during adolescence. Solutions of how to avoid and deal with the problem are also discussed. Substance abuse is highly associated with peer pressure, family that does not support their children, low self-esteem, curiosity and psychological pressure. These reasons if taken seriously may eliminate the risk of substance use. Keywords: Adolescence –Substance abuse-Family-Peers-School.