Hereditary Fructose Intolerance and Mitochondrial Disease Sara James Western Governor's University Hereditary Fructose Intolerance Enzymes in Breakdown of Fructose Enzymes are proteins that carry out chemical reactions. They will bind to a substrate and then end up releasing a product. The enzymes do it by a process of lock and key. The lock is considered the substrate and the enzyme is considered the key. Only the enzyme will fix the substrate because of the active sites on the enzyme.
ENZYME worksheet 1. Label the diagram [pic] a. substrate b. active site c. enzyme d. products 2. Answer true of false to the following statements: ___T____ Enzymes interact with specific substrates ___F____ Enzymes change shape after a reaction occurs ___T____ Enzymes speed up reactions. ___F____ One enzyme can be used for many different types of chemical reactions. ___T____ Enzyme reactions can be slowed or halted using inhibitors.
Discussion Enzymes are used to speed up biochemical reactions that occur within the body. They act as a catalyst for specific substances and therefore reduce activation energy. A catalyst is a substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction without being used up or altered, and therefore can be used repeatedly. Enzymes are also used to control cell metabolism by regulating the rate of biochemical reactions, this is because the amount of enzyme in a solution determines how fast a reaction can occur. An enzyme consists of complex chemicals that form precise, tertiary and quaternary protein structure consisting of long, linear chains of amino acids linked together with polypeptide bonds, which fold in such a way that they form a
(2 marks) A drug of same size and shape, as that of a substrate, which fits into the active site of an enzyme will act as a competitive inhibitor and the reaction is termed as competitive inhibition. The drug will compete with the substrate molecule for the active site of an enzyme, thus, it will decrease the rate of substrate-enzyme reaction by binding to the active site of enzyme. The rate of competitive inhibition reaction is directly proportional to the concentration of inhibitor present. 2. Glucose travels in the plasma or liquid part of your blood but cholesterol (triglycerides) travel bound to protein carriers in the blood.
MAINTAINING A BALANCE 1.1 Identify the role of enzymes in metabolism, describe their chemical composition and use a simple model to describe their specificity on substrates. - Enzymes are a biological catalyst found in living things that helps control which chemical reactions are to take place. - Most enzymes are made of protein. [pic] 1.2 Identify the pH as a way of describing the acidity of a substance. - pH is a way of describing the acidity or alkalinity of a substance.
(PubmedHealth, 2009) Fructose 1 phosphate which is the substrate of Aldolase B is split by Aldolase. This splitting is done by the lock and key design because the fructose 1 phosphate fits into the aldolase. The lock and key model enables the molecules called substrates to go through chemical changes to form new substances called products. Substrates are what enzymes act upon. Each substrate fits into an area of the enzyme and is called active sites.
Following this, the enzyme substrate complex breaks down producing the enzyme and the products. Each enzyme functions only for a specific substrate. The enzymes shape must be complementary to the shape of the substrate or the reaction will not take place. Since enzymes are perfectly created to perform certain functions. It is important that the catalytic elements in an active site are precisely positioned for their
Controlled Variables. temperature; pH; sucrase + sucrose incubation time 4. Describe what is measured as an indicator of sucrase activity and why this is an indicator of sucrase activity. The amount of product produced is an indicator of sucrase activity. This is an indicatore because sucrase is an enzyme found in the small intestine that catalyzes the splitting of the disaccharide sucrose into the monosaccharides glucos and fructose.
Enzymes are a type of protein which speeds up the chemical reactions which occur within an organism by lowering the activation energy required to start the reaction. 6. Lock and Key- Only a specific substrate is able to fit in a particular enzymes active site as the substrate is believed to be a perfect fit for the active site. Induced Fit- When a substrate binds to an enzyme’s active site, the enzyme temporarily changes shape to accommodate the