The Effect of Physical Attractiveness on Job Related Outcomes Essay

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2.2 Implicit personality theory Bruner and Tagiuri (1954) and Cronbach (1955) are the first who introduce the term implicit personality theory. As with any other theory, there are many definitions of implicit personality theory (e.g. Hays, 1958; Rosenberg & Sedlak, 1972; Schneider, 1973; Wegner & Vallacher, 1977). Hays (1958) claims that each individual makes inferential judgements of others in a schematic way. This scheme is called the implicit personality theory. It consists of a set of expected relations between personality traits of others, which are built up through direct experience that one has with those personality traits. Moreover, this direct experience can be both positive and negative. It is expected that positive experience with one personality trait will result in positive anticipations of other personality traits. However, it is expected that negative experience with one personality trait will result in negative anticipations of other personality traits. This definition of the implicit personality theory by Hays (1958) is supported by Schneider (1973). He defines implicit personality theory as the inferences that people draw of others‟ personality on the base of a few central personal characteristics. Through the years definitions of implicit personality have been modified and added. The most used and well-known definition is that of Ashmore and Del Boca (1979)3 as cited in for example Eagly et al. (1991), Hosoda et al. (2003) and Jackson et al. (1995). According to Ashmore and Del Boca (1979) implicit personality theory is a hypothetical construct, consisting of a set of personal attributes (e.g. personality traits) that each individual believes others to possess and the inferential relations. between these personal attributes. For instance, after knowing that someone is intelligent, it can be

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