Hydrogen Peroxide at high concentrations can be lethal. Catalase is there to help with the processes of breaking it down to assure that this doesn’t happen. The purpose of this lab was to help us understand what happens when an enzyme works with a substrate to make the reaction faster. It was to help show us what the effects of pH and temperature on the enzyme’s reaction. My hypothesis for the experiment was that the optimum temperature for catalase to function is 98.6o F because this is the optimum temperature for the human body.
They work best at room temperature around 36-40 C. Introduction For this experiment, I will be looking at how the change in temperature affects the rate of reaction. If the temperature is too high or too low in the water bath the enzymes active site will denature. The best temperature is 37 degrees because this is the natural body temperature which is also called the optimum temperature so the reaction will take place faster. Method * Firstly you have to label a test tube with the temperature that you will be investigating. * Secondly you have to add five drops of phenolphthalein the test tube which you are using.
When these factors vary, enzymes may change in shape so it will not be able to bond to the specific substance anymore. What is trypsin? Trypsin is produced in the pancreas as typsinogen originally allowing metabolic control. It is used widely in various biotechnological processes because it is very easy to be purified. Method: Material: • Trypsin • Casein • Water bath (to keep the temperature constant) • Colorimeter (to measure the rate of enzyme activity) • Thermometer • Test Tubes (to contain the casein and the buffer solution) • Stop watch (to control and measure the time) • Distilled water (to mix with trypsin to produce the buffer solution) • Test tube rack (to prevent the tubes rolling and smashing) Protocol: • Put 2.5 cm³ of 5% with reconstituted casein in 6 of the test
The reason for this is because; this allows the substrate to bind to the active site, which is known as the ‘lock and key model’. The substrate is the key and active site is the lock. No other key will fit into the lock. There are many factors that affect the rate of enzyme activity in the liver, namely, Ph level, and substrate concentration. I chose to do an experiment on ‘How temperature can affect the rate of enzyme activity in the liver?’ Temperature affects the “speeds of the molecules, the activation energy of the catalytic reaction and the thermal stability of the enzyme and substrate.” (2) At different levels of temperature the affects on the enzyme in the liver varies.
All living organisms have enzymes. Enzymes are globular proteins that selectively speed up (catalyze) the rates of chemical reactions. In our experiment we used yeast which contains catalase, our enzyme, which will react with our substrate, hydrogen peroxide thus making oxygen gas that we can measure. In our first experiment we examined hot and cold temperatures impact on catalase activity our research question was, ‘what is the relationship between temperature and yeast catalase activity?’ Our hypothesis was: If we test cold and hot temperatures, then colder temperatures will have more catalase activity than hotter temperatures. In our 2nd, we examined the effect of warmer temperature.
Once these two components come together, certain chemical bonds within the substrate molecule change much as a lock is released, and just like the key in this illustration, the enzyme is free to execute its duty once again. Many chemical reactions do proceed but at such a slow rate that their progress would seem to be imperceptible at normally encountered environmental temperature. Consider for example, the oxidation of glucose or other sugars to useable energy by animals and plants. For a living organism to derive heat and other energy from sugar, the sugar must be oxidized (combined with oxygen) or metabolically "burned" However, in a living system, the oxidation of sugar must meet an additional condition; that oxidation of sugar must proceed essentially at normal body temperature. Obviously, sugar surrounded by sufficient oxygen would not oxidize very rapidly at this temperature.
The Effect of Hydrogen Peroxide on the Reaction Rate of the Enzyme Catalase Variables: Manipulated Variables: * Different Concentration of Hydrogen Peroxide (0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4%, 0.5%) Responding Variable: * The reaction rate of the equation with catalase in the five different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide Controlled Variables: -Same amount of yeast (catalase) -10mL of hydrogen peroxide in each test tube -the paper disks were all the same -all lab equipment was cleaned between each use to ensure no contamination of different percentages of hydrogen peroxide Data Collection and Processing: Qualitative Data: -The hydrogen peroxide was a clear liquid with no particles in it -The yeast had chunks in the bottom, it was not stirred well -The yeast was a yellow/brown colour when we dipped paper circles into it -When the reaction involving the Catalase occurred we could see tiny oxygen molecules begin to form on top of the yeast paper disk -The bubbles of oxygen made the paper disc float back up to the surface Quantitative Data: Raw Data: Time it took for the yeast paper circle to rise to the surface of the 10m ±1mL of solution for: 0.1% Concentration of Hydrogen Peroxide Time in (s) Trial 1 | 65.70±0.005s (0.007610%) | Trial 2 | 69.52±0.005s (0.007192%) | Trial 3 | 79.81±0.005s (0.006264%) | 0.2% Concentration of Hydrogen Peroxide Time in (s) Trial 1 | 62.01±0.005s (0.008063%) | Trial 2 | 59.06±0.005s (0.008466%) | Trial 3 | 57.19±0.005s (0.008743%) | 0.3% Concentration of Hydrogen Peroxide Time in (s) Trial 1 | 49.65±0.005s (0.01007%) | Trial 2 | 48.47±0.005s (0.01032%) | Trial 3 | 46.69±0.005s (0.01071%) | 0.4% Concentration of Hydrogen Peroxide Trial 1 | 39.07±0.005s (0.01800%) | Trial 2 | 28.61±0.005s (0.01748%) | Trial 3 | 42.67±0.005s (0.01172%) | 0.5% Concentration of Hydrogen
It is these collisions which cause the reaction. We also know that heat is a catalyst in all reactions. I also know that yeast is an enzyme and all enzymes have an optimal temperature at which they work best, this is around 45º for yeast. However I predict that if the temperature is raised too much, then the reaction will not occur at all. I believe this because yeast is an enzyme, and according to the, 'GCSE revision guide' and the lock and key theory, enzymes are protein molecules, and each enzyme
Procedure is to be repeated using temperature of 0o, 60o, and 80o C. Introduction Enzymes are single-chain or multiple chain proteins that act as biological catalysts with the inherent ability to promote specific chemical reactions in vivo, as well as in vitro. Like all catalysts enzymes work by lowering the activation energy required for the reaction to occur, this is achieved because enzymes facilitate the formation of the transition state from substrate to product. Enzymes have three distinctive characteristics: 1. High specificity The ability to select and thus promote a particular chemical reaction on a single or small number of structurally related molecules is a key aspect of enzyme mechanics. Invertase is the enzyme which catalyses the hydrolysis of the disaccharide sucrose, into the monomers of glucose and fructose; due to the high specificity of enzymes one would not expect invertase to catalyze the
Even though hydrogen peroxide is naturally produced by our body as a byproduct of our metabolic process, it is very toxic to our body. Catalase helps to break down hydrogen peroxide so that our body can process it easier. The purpose of this experiment is to determine the amount of oxygen gas produced when different amounts of catalase are introduced to hydrogen peroxide under the same conditions. Hypothesis The amount of gas produced will increase based on the amount of catalase added to the hydrogen peroxide. If more catalase added to the same amount of hydrogen peroxide at the same temperate, the more oxygen gas will be produced.