The Effect of Competition to Levels of Motivation in Recreational Athletes

1871 Words8 Pages
The Effect of Competition to Levels of Motivation in Recreational Athletes Muhammad Siddiq Bin Amdan University of Wollongong The Effect of Competition to Levels of Motivation in Recreational Athletes For many years, there has been an interest in the the types of motivation in the realm of sports. (Blais, Vallerand, Pelletier, & Mongeau, 1985; Fortier, Vallerand, Briere, & Provencher, 1995). According to the self-determination theory put forth by Deci and Ryan (1985), there are several types of motivation aligned at different points of a self-determination continuum. This continuum can be divided into three basic forms of motivation: Amotivation, Intrinsic Motivation, and Extrinsic Motivation. According to Deci and Ryan (1985, 1991), amotivated athletes perceive that their actions do not influence the outcomes. They also are no longer able to identify any positive reasons to continue to train and may eventually decide to stop practising their sport. Amotivation are placed on the lowest level of the self-determination continuum (Deci & Ryan, 1985, 1991; Fortier et al. 1995). Next on the continuum are three forms of extrinsic motivation: External Regulation, Introjection and Identification. Extrinsic motivation refers to a wide variety of behaviours which are engaged as a means to their end and not for their own sake (Deci, 1975). Such behaviours include rewards, punishments, constraints and other external contingencies. Intrinsic motivation is defined as the engagement of an activity on one's own accord, out of interest, and for the contentment or gratification one experiences while performing it (Deci & Ryan, 1985; Harter, 1982). From lower to higher levels of self-determination, Intrinsic Motivation can be broken down into three sub-types: To Know, To Accomplish and To Experience Simulation. Fortier et al. (1995) asked a sample

More about The Effect of Competition to Levels of Motivation in Recreational Athletes

Open Document