Recrystallization of the Benzoic Acid Antonio Roki CHE 311L: Organic Chemistry I Section #2 September 14, 2012 Recrystallization of the Benzoic Acid Summary: The purpose of this experiment was to determine if the process of the Recrystallization is the good method of purification of the solid substance based on its different solubility values. This experiment conducted the purification of the Benzoic acid. The melting point range of the impure Benzoic acid was determined to be 86- 108 °C. Melting point was measured one more time after the process of the purification and was determined to be 111-117 °C. The melting point ranges of the impure and pure benzoic acid seemed reasonable.
In this experiment we will determine the percent composition of the NaHCO_3 and the contaminates in the solution. Experiment 1 – Titration of NaHCO_3 with HCl. Titration allows for the equilibration of the unknown substance with an acid. The amount of acid required to neutralize the unknown will give data on the amount of base present. The titration between NaHCO_3 and HCl will determine the percent composition of NaHCO_3 in the Athenium Baking Soda.
Title: The Effect of Different Concentrations of H₂SO₄ on the Mass of Marble Nuggets. Purpose: The purpose of this lab is to determine the mass of marble nugget versus concentration of H₂SO₄ relationship. Background: 1. Sulfuric acid- sulfur dioxide is oxidized to sulfur trioxide, which then reacts with water : 2SO2(G) +O2(g) = 2SO3(g) or SO3(g) + H2O(l) = H2SO4(aq) 2. Sulfuric acid reacts with marble to form calcium sulfate 3.
Objective: The objective of the first lab is to use the graph of Pressure versus Temperature to estimate the value of Absolute Zero. Based on the Gay-Lussac’s Law, pressure is proportional to temperature; we are able to find the Absolute Zero when the pressure reaches zero. Conclusion: Our experimental result is -285.40 C. It means when pressure reaches zero, the temperature should reach -273.15 C, which is the value of Absolute Zero. Our experimental Absolute Zero value is fairly close to the accepted value, and the percentage error is 4.48%. One of the major sources of error in this experiment is that the volume of metal ball will rise while the surrounding water’s temperature rise.
Introduction: The purpose of this experiment was to determine the Activation Energy of the Hydrogen Peroxide-Iodide reaction. This was found by measuring the rate at which the reaction occurred and plotting this against the natural log of the number of moles of hydrogen peroxide remaining to find the slope. The reaction is carried out in a Potassium Iodide solution, which serves as a catalyst to the reaction. A catalyst is a chemical which increases the rate of a reaction without being consumed. Catalysts operate by decreasing the value of the activation energy for the reaction.
The Empirical Formula of an Oxide, Purpose: The purpose of this lab was to determine the empirical formula of magnesium oxide. To do this, we measured the weight of the magnesium before the reaction with oxygen, and then measure it after it had bonded with the oxygen. After the mass of the items were collected, the data was calculated in empirical formula. Background: The empirical formula of a compound is the whole number ratio of the elements in a compound. For example, the empirical formula of water is H2O meaning for every 1 O atom there are 2 H atoms.
220.127.116.11 Chemical Interesterification Chemical interesterification is the process to redistribute the component of fatty acid and glycerol ions to form new gylcerolester with the presence of sodium methoxide as a catalyst. Chemical interesterification is also known as directed interesterification since this reaction is directed to produce a particular type of glyceride (O’Brien, 2009). This process is conducted at mild temperature with a range between 20°C to 100°C. O’Brien (2009) states that only catalyst that is active at low temperature is effective. Besides, he also states that the rate of random rearrangement is crucial since the trisaturated glycerides can precipitate as fast as they are produced in the liquid phase.
Gravimetric Determination of Sulfate Purpose The purpose of this lab is to determine the percentage of sulfate in the hydrate by precipitating the sulfate as barium sulfate. Materials Filler paper Sodium sulfate Graduated cylinder Bunsen burner Watch glass Beakers (250 mL, 400 mL) Rubber bulb Graduated pipette Beaker tongs Funnel Filter Paper Sodium Sulfate Drying oven Wash bottle Stirring rod Silver nitrate Hydrochloric acid Distilled water Small test tube Procedures First, .4861 grams of sodium sulfate was placed into a clean 400mL beaker. Exactly 200mL of water and 1mL of HCl was added to the same beaker. A watch glass was placed on the beaker and the solution was heated using the Bunsen burner to a gentle boil. The watch glass was removed with the beaker tongs.
Once it formed, it had been filter to obtain benzoic acid form the solution. In conclusion, the benzoic acid had been purifying by comparing the actual IR and the melting point to the experiment IR and melting point. As the IR contained the broad OH band in the 3000 cm-1 and have C=O at 1617 cm-1. The melting point are similar to each other of the actual and experimentally, 107-117 Celsius versus 121-123 Celsius. Extraction method was achieved by the sample that contained benzoic acid, sodium chloride and p-nitroaniline.