Evaluate the success or otherwise of urban regeneration schemes in combating the causes and consequences of urban decline (40 marks) Urban decline is caused by many factors including the development of the suburbs, leading to migration of the upper and middle class workers but is mostly effected by de-industrialisation, resulting in big corporations leaving the region, taking skilled workers and trade with them and causing large scale unemployment. This can cause an even bigger spiral of decline as low income levels mean people can’t afford high quality housing, education or health and then investment into the area starts to leave which leaves the infrastructure to crumble and social standards start to slip. Therefore, to help encourage development in these areas, the government and the people often create schemes to help regenerate the area. One cause of urban decline is the emigration of workers out of an area usually into the suburbs in a search for a nicer environment and better quality of living. This can often lead to the abandonment of buildings which soon become overgrown and derelict.
Warehouse clubs drew customers away from other wholesale and retail outlets such as supermarkets, department stores, drugstores, office supply stores, consumer electronics stores, and automotive stores chiefly because it was difficult for such sellers to match the low prices of a wholesale club. Costco, Sam’s Club, and BJ’s Wholesale had substantially lower operating and costs than most retailers because they purchased full truckloads of merchandise directly from manufacturers, displayed items on pallets or inexpensive shelving, kept extra inventory on high shelving
Firstly, we must identify the problems with transport in Urban Areas in the 21st Century. The first issue, an obvious one, is the significant increase in ownership of the car, leading to congestion on the roads which were not built for so many cars. The number of cars owned per family has grown from 30% in 1961, to just under 80% in 2012. According to an RAC Foundation Report, the number of cars owned has been increase by approximately 1.5% per annum, for the past 30 years. This has lead to a host of other problems.
However, the accelerated progression of the country’s economy and affluence wrought consequential effects. Businesses monopolised entire industries through vertical and horizontal integration, the increase in industry attracted workers to already densely populated cities, and working conditions for the lower-to-middle class were often poor. With the unprecedented increases in population, cities were ill-equipped to support the sanitary and safety needs of the occupants. Post-Civil War demands triggered manufacturing expansion. Soon the new economic process was largely controlled by the utilisation of iron, as well as electric and steam power.
Drawing on what you have learned from the Making Social Lives DVD and learning companion 1, describe some inequalities on City Road. In this assignment I am going to look at the inequalities which I have observed on City Road. Inequalities are situations where people feel excluded, businesses only cater for specific people or where people have more money to expand their business than what others would. One thing that I observed was a news agents owned by Collin Butwell. I felt like there were a lot of inequalities surrounding him and his shop, as there were bigger more well-known stores which had opened up near him, such as the Tesco and the Spar.
Lower Land prices: Developers are buying land further away from the inner rings of the Greater Golden Horseshoe, this is due to low purchase prices Single family homes: the fact that they are building on the outer lines of the GGH, it gives them to build housing in areas of low density zoning lower crime rate in the suburbs, How did we get to this point? Decades of neglect and lack of sufficient investment - Decades of neglect and
This cause led to the boom because since cars were being made in such large numbers the rule of supply and demand came into action. Supply and demand is when the supply of something becomes higher then the demand decreases therefore the prices also drop. In 1908 car prices were about $850 however by 1925 car prices plunged to $265. This method not only created over 500,000 jobs in the automobile industry but it also caused the entire economy to rise. This was because structures such as petrol stations were built to run the cars, taxi drivers appeared, and people could travel further to go to work meaning, again, more jobs were created.
So, jobs are important just they generally aren’t considered as important. This essay will outline several subjects to find a winner and loser of the ‘consumer society we live in. The introduction of ‘consumer shopping, consumption and social sciences’ describe an ‘inner city high street’. This street was rundown and not many people used it. When it ‘started to revive in the early 1990’s and early 2000’s, due to new customer outlets’ (Kevin Hetherington, 2009); the street got cleaned up and because it looked nicer more people shopped there.
In the 1800s when tourism was restricted in Rotorua, the tourist attractions were very concentrated in the central tourism district. This was because transport was limited and therefore attractions that were far away were not accessed easily, and so not visited. However, after the improvement of transport attractions not so close to the central tourism district were able to be visited. The bid-rent curve represents how land in the central tourism district is expensive, but the further away from the CTD, the cheaper the land is to purchase. When transport was greatly improved, small businesses were able to create their own tourist attractions, further away from the CTD where the land is cheaper.
A similar effect has happened in the city of Exeter. In Exeter, there has been suburbanisation, but with the majority of those moving being businesses, not people. Businesses have moved from the inner city to the suburbs and this has caused lots of problems. Mainly, it has effected in the increased outward expansion of urban areas, reducing the amount of green sites in the area. Parts of the Green Belt are also being invaded as a result of the expansion.