He also made a start on reforming religion; in July 1547 he introduced the Book of Homilies and paraphrases, a religious document that had to be placed in every Church. Then in December 1547 the Act of Six Articles was repealed, this was a document that had re-established Catholic Doctrines. All of these policies were reforming religion and moving towards the Protestant way of running the Church, and Edward hoped that the introduction of Protestant readings, for example Cranmer’s first prayer book in 1548, would lead people to begin to convert to Protestantism. However religious revolution progressed far further under John Dudley the Duke of Northumberland, following Somerset’s fall from power. Despite originally being more conservative himself, and supporting that side of the Privy Council, he understood the need for religious reform under Edward and in 1550 all conservatives and Catholic Bishops, such as Gardiner, were
How is the Crusades defined? In according to the all about God website, “The Crusades were a series of military missions, usually organized and promoted by the Pope and/or Roman Catholic Church. The crusades took place through the 11th and 13th centuries A.D.” If we look have a close look to recent events, we could come with the clear understanding on how the Crusaders were started. Back in 1095, the Muslims were taking over and if they were as cruel as they are now, population, from my point of view, were terrorized. Pushing certain individuals to take actions on their own, by forming the Crusades.
The crusades also pulled a large amount of people out of Europe, many of which would not return. Some crusaders of course did make it back to Europe, often with a very different view of the world. Another major effect on the culture of Europe because of the crusades was a weakening of the nobility and an uplifting of the merchant class. This happened because of the massive expense on the nobility to finance their war campaigns against the Muslims. This money of course came from merchants who made massive profits lending to the nobles.
Byzantine Emperor Alexius the first received assistance from the Pope and formed and army to help push the Seljuk Turks out of the Holy Land. Throughout the series of wars the Muslims were the victor. This shows that the Middle Ages should be known as the Dark Ages. The Black Death also known as the Bubonic Plague was a horrific disease that spread throughout Europe from 1347 to 1350. During that time there was no cure and it was highly contagious.
For this question, key factors will need to be analysed in order to form a correct conclusion on Elizabeth 1's reasons for pursuing a religious settlement, such as England's religious turbulence or relations with powerful European countries. Beliefs in Elizabeth society on religion and gender roles will also need to be analysed when answering this question. Firstly, the religious turbulence that had plagued England for over twenty years greatly impacted Elizabeth's decision. England was a catholic country with the head of the church being the Pope. This continued until Henry VIII, so desperate to produce a male heir, broke Papal control over England and named himself Head of the Church that taught an offshoot of Christianity based on the teachings of Martin Luther, the Protestant Church of England.
There was an immediate call for a new crusade. However, surprisingly enough, there was not an overwhelming response. Eugenius first appealed to the young King Louis of France. In December of that same year he addressed a papal bull to the king, proclaiming a new crusade: ...We therefore beseech, admonish and command all of you, and we enjoin it for the remission of sins, that those who are on God's side - especially the more powerful and noble men - that they gird themselves manfully and attack the pagan multitudes.. liberate the Eastern church, and strive to wrest many thousands of our captive brethren from their hands... (Brundage, 1962,
With the opportunity for profit, the merchants that made the trip also had a chance to make a substantial salary, and even make a fortune from being an entrepreneur. Many of the merchants were from the home country, which in turn spread the capital in the wrong places. When there was a gross profit, it was eventually sent to Amsterdam and other places, drying out the capital needed to expand and be prosperous. Many merchants would outbid their neighbors and barely break even, which lead to trading amongst themselves in various forms. This type of trade eventually led to the abandonment of the trade monopoly the West India Company, and opened the area up to other merchants.
Natural resentment towards the Muslim settlers was instilled through the church, and it was because of this the Papacy was able to use Crusades from the 1200’s onwards to remove threats in Spain and to the east. The coherent theme of the following crusades was the use of the defence of the Holy Land as a catalyst for rallying Christian Knights to the Pope’s right hand. By the Grace of God and the zeal
The Plague Beginning in the mid-fourteenth century, Europe was struck by a series of waves of plague called the Black Death. The first wave alone killed one-third of the population, 25 million people. While there were multiple causes of the plague floating around by word of mouth, it was the effects of the plague that matter the most. The Black Death affected the society, religion, and the economy of the Middle Ages. The change in population was a drastic social effect of the plague.
The First Crusade The crusades were a series of military expeditions by western European Christians to the Middle East in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. The crusaders saw themselves as trying to free the Holy Land from the rule of the Muslims. The crusades were mainly directed toward Jerusalem and the Christian shrine of the Holy Sepulcher. The first crusade started when the Byzantine Emperor, Alexius I requested aid from the west against the Muslims. Instead of just sending troops, Pope Urban II invited his people to engage in a holy war to take back Jerusalem.