The Chlor Alkali Industry

1407 Words6 Pages
The Chlor-alkali Industry In 1800, Cruickshank was the first to prepare chlorine electrochemically, however; the process was not very important until the development of an adequate generator and of synthetic graphite for anodes in 1892. These two developments made the chlor-alkali process possible on an industrial scale. In 1885 the diaphragm cell process was introduced, followed by the mercury cell process in 1892. Instead, the membrane cell process was only developed much later, in 1970. Since then, activated titanium anodes in the diaphragm have substituted graphite anodes and mercury cell processes. Production of chlorine was very low in the 1800s and chlorine was only used for bleaching. In 1887, the annual world production was 115 tonnes while, from the 1940s, Chlorine production increased due to the enormous demand for plastics, notably PVC and polyurethanes. The production of propylene oxide, solvents containing chlorinated hydrocarbons and inorganic chlorine compounds are also factors that increased the use of chlorine after 1940. The chlor-alkali industry is one of the largest electrochemical technologies in the world. It is an energy intensive process and is the second largest consumer of electricity among all electrolytic industries. The products of this industry, chlorine and sodium hydroxide, have a number of important uses. Chlorine is used to purify water and as a disinfectant. It is also used in the manufacture of many every-day items such as hypochlorous acid, which is used to kill bacteria in drinking water. Chlorine is also used in paper production, antiseptics, food, insecticides, paints, petroleum products, plastics, medicines, textiles, solvents, and many other consumer products. Many chemical products such as chloroform and carbon tetrachloride also contain chlorine. Instead, Sodium hydroxide, has different uses that include making soap

More about The Chlor Alkali Industry

Open Document