The Central Dogma of Molecular Biology

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The Central Dogma of Molecular Biology The Central Dogma of Molecular Biology is the events required to make DNA into a protein. This process requires DNA replication, transcription and translation. The difference of DNA from RNA is that; DNA has Deoxyribose sugar and ATGC bases. However, RNA has ribose sugar and AUGC bases. DNA has a double -helix structure which is held by H bonds where as RNA doesn’t have a double- helix structure. The functions of DNA are that to direct its own replication and to direct transcription of RNA. DNA Replication The process of DNA copying is called a replication which begins with the unwinding of two complimentary strands. Each strand is then used as a template for the production of a new complimentary strand. For the cell to produce daughter cells it is essential that the DNA is copied and identical copy is passed onto each daughter cell. There are two ways in which the double stranded DNA can replicate itself; 1) Conservative replication: One parent DNA molecule remains intact and one new copy of the DNA molecule is synthesised. Thus, one daughter cell gets an old copy of DNA molecule and one gets a new copy of DNA molecule. 2) Semi conservative: One parent DNA molecule splits into two each daughter cell getting a one old copy and one new copy of polynucleotide. So, the DNA replication is semi conservative. Each polynucleotide acts as a template for base pairing to form a complimentary strand. DNA is replicated by DNA polymerase and these enzymes uses single stranded DNA as a template to form Watson-Crick base pairs with template. These nucleotides are linked by Phospodiester bond. Like the RNA polymerases which carry out transcription DNA polymerases only work in 5’3’ direction. The process requires RNA primer to produce a free 3’- OH group and primer is synthesised by RNA polymerase. DNA replication is

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