Diseases Affecting the Immune System Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, or ALS, is a disease of the nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord that control voluntary muscle movement. The cause of ALS is unknown and also referred to as Lou Gehrig’s disease. The progressive degeneration of the motor neurons in ALS eventually leading to their death. When the motor neurons die, the ability of the brain to initiate and control muscle movement is lost. With voluntary muscle action progressively affected.
Damage to the temporal lobes caused the brain from registering any new events that had happened. The frontal lobe is involved in motor function, problem solving, spontaneity, memory, language, initiation, judgment, impulse control, and social and sexual behavior, Greg was unable to carry on a normal conversation and was found to not make sense of what was trying to be communicated. Greg’s hypothalamus was also destroyed, and explains the reason for his blindness (Carpenter & Huffman, 2011). This case study led to scientific knowledge of how that specific brain regions function by Doctors and physiologists being able to study Greg and use the findings to share with other people in the science community. Oliver Sacks discovered, even though Greg lost a great portion of his brain, that when music played Greg would become more alive, more engaged in life, especially when music like the Grateful Dead or other music from that era would be played (Sacks, 2011).
Brain scans can be used to help diagnose some disorders. Furthermore, the genes we are born with, from our parents, provide the blueprint for our bodies and brains. A slight abnormality in our genes can affect the functioning of our brains. Also to operate properly the brain relies on hundreds of chemicals to operate in the correct balance, these chemicals are used to send messages around the brain. Therefore if there are chemical imbalances abnormality may occur, for example low levels of serotonin are linked to depression and schizophrenia is linked with high levels of dopamine.
Section C: Describe how the physiological approach can explain a behaviour/phenomenon. (4 marks) Describe how the physiological approach can explain the abilities of split-brain patients. The physiological approach assumes that the abilities of split-brain patients are significantly determined by individuals’ brain structure and function. The abilities of the split-brain patients are different from normal individuals in the study of Sperry because their corpus callosum has been severed. This means that information from one hemisphere cannot be transferred to the other hemisphere.
In fact, the ancient Greeks had recognised that abnormalities such as epilepsy might be caused by brain disorders, but it was not until physiologists like von Haller and Greisinger argued that the brain played a crucial role in causing abnormal behaviour that the biological approach ‘took off’. The biological approach to the causes of abnormality The biological approach sees abnormality as being caused by physical factors. The three physical factors are: (1) Brain damage (2) Faulty regulation of brain biochemistry (3) Genetic factors Brain damage: Early support for the biological approach came from studies of patients suffering from a condition called 'general paresis of the insane'. This condition is characterised by delusions of grandeur and mental deterioration. However, far from being caused by 'demonic possession', research showed that its causes were biological (it occurs if syphilis is left untreated - the syphilis bacterium makes its way to the brain and causes damage to it).
This invasive method is undertaken to prevent the spread of severe epileptic seizures from one side of the brain to the other. Split brain patients do not seem to have any major side effects as a result of their surgery, despite the fact that, after the operation, the two hemispheres virtually act as two independent brains. VISUAL EFFECTS/HOW IT HAPPENS: Visual stimuli fall on the retina at the back of each eye. The retina contains a layer of nerve cells (photoreceptors) that convert visual light energy (electromagnetic radiation) into electrochemical energy (nerve impulses). This conversion of energy is called transduction and the energy is then transmitted along the optic nerve to the brain, Each eye has its own optic nerve and these meet and cross over information at the optic chiasm.
Cristina-Sandra Chirita | Dementia | [Date] Cristina-Sandra Chirita | Dementia | [Date] Dementia Awareness assessment Dementia Awareness assessment 1. Understand what dementia is: 1.1 Explain what is meant by the term “dementia” Dementia are the signs and symptoms caused as a result of the specific diseases such as Alzheimer’s or a stroke that involve the damaging of brain cells; as the brain cells die the person with a dementia will lose their ability to do things they are used to doing as different parts of the brain are damaged. Dementia affects both older and younger people and the decline in the person will get worse as more brain cells are damaged or die. 1.2 Describe the key functions of the brain that are affected by dementia - behavior, movement, interpretation of what is around us and personality: frontal lobe; - language used, special awareness and recognition of places, objects and people: parietal lobe; - eyesight and ability to see: occipital lobe; - memory, hearing and speech: temporal lobe. 1.3 Explain why depression, delirium and age-related memory impairment may be mistaken for dementia Because this are symptoms of dementia but the cause for them to happen can be different: - for depression: a person can be depressed but not suffer for dementia; - for delirium: it can be caused by an infection and the person could become confused and suffer with memory loss which are also signs and symptoms of dementia; - for age-related memory impairment: if someone becomes forgetful they might think or others might think they have dementia because a lot of people associate dementia with old age and memory loss but younger people can be affected too.
Neurons and synapses become damaged by dementia they may be unable to carry messages that tell a section of the brain what to do. 1.2. Describe the key functions of the brain that are affected by dementia Frontal lobe - Movement, emotional behaviour, personality, interpretation and feeling. Parietal lobe - Language, special awareness and recognition. Temporal lobe – Long term memory, speech and hearing.
Seizures are symptoms of abnormal brain functions. With the exception of very young children and the elderly, the cause of the abnormal brain function is usually not identifiable. When seizures start, the physician will try to identify the cause of the seizure. This is because the most specific diagnosis as to why seizures are occurring depends on finding a cure, and the best therapy will be one specific to the etiology. If a specific diagnosis of cause cannot be made , then the epilepsy will be described according to seizure type or epileptic syndrome.
The doctor will ask for a complete description of what happened. Often it is important to bring along a family member or someone else who saw the seizure and can tell the doctor what happened, since the person who had the spell may have been unconscious. Even if the person thinks that he or she was aware, there may be important aspects of the spell that are not recalled. The doctor will want to hear not only a description of the seizure itself, but also the story of the events leading up to it and the after-effects that followed it. The doctor then will thoroughly examine the person and probably will order several tests.