The Cardiovascular System Essay

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The Cardiovascular System Normal Anatomy * The heart is located in the LEFT side of the mediastinum * Consists of Three layers- epicardium, myocardium and endocardium * The epicardium covers the outer surface of the heart * The myocardium is the middle muscular layer of the heart * The endocardium lines the chambers and the valves * The layer that covers the heart is the PERICARDIUM * There are two parts- parietal and visceral pericardium * The space between the two pericardial layers is the pericardial space * The heart also has four chambers- two atria and two ventricles * The Left atrium and the right atrium * The left ventricle and the right ventricle The heart chambers are guarded by valves * The atrio-ventricular valves- Tricuspid and bicuspid * The semi-lunar valves- Pulmonic and aortic valves The Blood supply of the heart comes from the Coronary arteries 1. Right coronary artery supplies the RIGHT atrium and RIGHT ventricle, inferior portion of the LEFT ventricle, the POSTERIOR septal wall and the two nodes- AV (90%) and SA node (55%) 2. Left coronary artery- branches into the LAD and the circumflex branch * The LAD supplies blood to the anterior wall of the LEFT ventricle, the anterior septum and the Apex of the left ventricle * The CIRCUMFLEX branch supplies the left atrium and the posterior LEFT ventricle The CONDUCTING SYSTEM OF THE HEART Consists of the * 1. SA node- the pacemaker * 2. AV node- slowest conduction * 3. Bundle of His – branches into the Right and the Left bundle branch * 4. Purkinje fibers- fastest conduction The Heart sounds * 1. S1- due to closure of the AV valves * 2. S2- due to the closure of the semi-lunar valves * 3. S3- due to increased ventricular filling * 4. S4- due to forceful atrial contraction Heart rate * Normal range is

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