3.4 Summarise the types of risks that may be involved in assessment in own area of practice. 3.5 Explain how to minimise risks through the planning process. 4.1 Explain the importance of involving the learner and others in the assessment process. 4.2 Summarise the types of information that should be made available to learners and others involved in the assessment process. 4.3 Explain how peer and self-assessment can be used effectively to promote learner involvement and personal responsibility in the assessment of learning.
Skinner – Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning is a method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behavior. Through operant conditioning, an association is made between a behavior and a consequence for that behavior. Operant conditioning was coined by behaviorist Skinner, which is why you may occasionally hear it referred to as Skinnerian conditioning. As a behaviorist, Skinner believed that internal thoughts and motivations could not be used to explain behavior. Instead, he suggested, we should look only at the external, observable causes of human behavior.
Followed by two different types of learning, instrumental, and classical. Finally, we will conclude with the relationship between cognition and learning. When someone usually explains what learning is, the answer usually is described as the way to gather information, we way a person comprehends, or master’s something from experience or by his or her studies. Psychologist think that the common definition is vague and does not fully define the findings of scientist and observable behavior (Olson & Hergenhahn, 2013). Learning is used to assist in the process of adapting to his or her environment (Olson & Hergenhahn, 2013).
This perspective is focused on the aspect of the semantic, syntactic, and the morphemic language knowledge. The major theorist that is involved in this perspective is Skinner. Skinner talked about operant conditioning, which is defined as “reinforcement that often takes the form of attention, repetition, and approval.” (Puckett & Black, 2001). For example, when a child will make noises and sounds while in the same room as a parent and says “ma-ma”, the parent will then go to the child and start repeating the sounds and making the child feel positive about the interaction about what just happened. This developmental perspective will usually happen when the child is young and small infant.
His interest in children’s cognitive processes developed when he started to notice that children of similar ages made the same kinds of mistakes on test questions. After in depth research, Piaget developed the stages of cognitive development theory. This revolved around the idea that unlike adults, thinking and mental development of children changes qualitatively with age (Passer & Smith, 2013). In order to understand Piaget’s theory, it is important to understand its fundamental principles. The first, Piaget referred to using the term ‘schema’.
Skinner with the “Skinner Box”. This was a study that was done to prove that we could modify behavior by giving positive reinforcements. B.F. Skinner believed that the best way for us to understand behavior was to look at what caused the behavior and what the consequences were from us participating in the behavior. The field of psychology learned that when an individual is positively reinforced for participation in a specific wanted behavior the individual is more likely to repeat the wanted behavior. This is used mostly in parenting by rewarding a child for being good.
From the moment we are born to the day we die, we are constantly learning new things. Some people associate learning only with school or other educational institutes, but we learn in different places and situations our life. In the 1930s, American psychologist B.F.Skinner proposed that learning is the result of the application of consequences. It means that any behavior that has good consequences will tend to be repeated, and any behavior that has bad consequences will tend to be avoided. B. F. Skinner defined this method of learning as a “Operant conditioning”: the type of learning in which voluntary reply is strengthened if it is positively reinforced and weakened if it is punished.
2 BILINGUALISM’S EFFECT ON COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Little research has been conducted on bilingualism’s effect on cognitive development advantages bilingual children’s exhibit in certain cognition processes. The acquisition of a new language and its continuous practice, while switching back and forth from one language to the other, increases inhibitory control (e.g., the ability to direct attention firmly and maintain it), metalinguistic awareness (e.g., the ability to think of language as a process as well as a thing itself), and socio-economic problem solving (de Abreu et al., 2012). Bilingual children learn to direct their attention to their speech and train of thought so that their peers effectively understand them. For example, de Abreu’s research study tested monolingual and bilingual children on their selective attention and interference suppression. While Goetz’s study tested 3 and 4-year-old bilingual children with false-belief tasks.
For example, Skinnerian conditioning as a behaviorist, Skinner believed that internal thoughts and motivations could not be used to explain behavior. Instead, he suggested, we should look only at the external, observable causes of human behavior. Skinner used the term operant to refer to any "active behavior that operates upon the environment to generate consequences" (1953). Motivation is a condition that energizes behavior and gives it direction. It is experienced subjectively as a conscious desire For example, the